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. 1832 .
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, " " (1872), "" (1873),
" " (1880), "" (1882), "" (1893), "
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(1874), "" (1874), '" " (1876), " "
(1881), "" (1887), " " (1890), "" (1892)
, "" (1895) ., ,
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(1923), " " (1924, . );

.
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.: ""
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" " (1932). 20 - . 30- .
. : " " (1925) " "
(1931) , " " (1930).
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: " " (1932), " " (1934),
" " (1936), " " (1937) ;
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(" ", 1940).
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" " (1937), "" - (1938), " "
(1939).
. - . . (1938-43) .
. . (1938-43). - .
( - . . , . 3. , . . , .
. )
- . -
. . , . . , . . -, . . , .
. , . . , . . , . . , . . , .
. , . . , . . , . . , . .
. 1935 . . -
. . . 1939 - . 1940 -
(. -).
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: "- " (1942), ""
(1942), " " (1943). -
, .
- 1944. .
- :
. . (. ), . . (, ),
.. (. ). . .
. . . . - . .
(1953-56), . . (1956-61), . .- . .
(1952-59), . .- . . (1950-61), . .- . .
(1945-62), . . -. . (1945-50), .
. - . . (1944-56), . . . (1956-59).
40 - . 50- .
. . .
. "" (1946),
, (,
. .
-" " , 1958). . .
. - " " (1949), . .
. " " - (1955) ""
(1960),
. . . . .
"" (1956), .
. " "
(1957), " " (1961) ( - . .
. ), " " (1959, . . . ).
50-. 60- . . . ,
-" " (1950), " "
(1961), -. - "" (1953), ""
(1957). . . :
"" (1950), "" (1952), "" (1953). -
. . . :
" " . (1961), "" (
) (1962), " "
(1963); : " " (1962), " "
- (1963).
- , , ,
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- (1964): - . . . . ,
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.; - . - . . . (.
), . - . . , . . , . .
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(. .), . . - . . ;
- . . . (. .), . . ;
. - . . . . .
. - 1860 . . .
. 1885
. .
. 1894 ,
.
,
, 1944
. - 22 , - 18 , - 25 1.
- 1625 .
1917
( )
1917 27 .: " " ( , . ,
. , . ):,
14 .: "" ( , . ' .
, . ).
1918 26 .: "" ( , . , .
); 7 .: "" (" ")
( , . , . ,
. );
15 .: " "
- ( , . , . ,
); 22 . "" ( , .
, . , . ); 27 .: ""
( , . , . ).
1919 30 .: " " - (
, . , , . ); 30 .: " "
( , . , . , . ); 14
.:
" " ( , . . . ,
. ); 21 .: "" ( , . ,
. , . );
16 : " " ( . ,
. , . ); 30 :
" " - ( , .
, . ); 4 .: " " ( , .
, . );
1 : " " ( , .
, . -, . ); 4
.: "" (. . , . ); 20 .:
"" ( -, . , . ).
1920 6 .: " " ( , . , .
, . , , ); 18 .: ""
( , . , . , . ); 23 .:
" " ( , . , . ).
1921 3 : " " ( , .- ,
. , . ).
1922 25 .: " " ("--") ( ,
. , . ); 23 .:
"" ( , . , . , .
).
1923 1 .: "" ( , . ,
. , . ); 27 .:
"" ( , . , . );
24 .: "" ( , . , . ,
);
12 .: "" ( , . , .
*, . ); 29 .:
"" - ( , . -, .
, . ); 7 .: "" ( ,
. , . , . ).
1924 9 .: "" ( , . , .
, . ); 23 .: " " (
, . , . ); 10 .: " "
( , . ); 6 : "" .
( -, . , . ); 11 .:
" " ( , . , . ).
1925 9 : " " ( -, .
, . , . );
6 .: "" ( , . -, .
, . ); 7 .: " " (
, . , . , . ); 12 .:
"" ( , . , . , .
).
1926 18 .: " " (
, . , . , . ); 7 .:
" " ( , .
, . , . ); 11 .: ""
( , . , . , .
, . ).
1927 25 : "-" ( , .
, . , . , . ); 13
: "" ( , . , , ); 7
.:
" "-- ,
( , . , . ).
1928 16 .: " " ( , . ,
. , . ); 16 :
"" ( , . , . , .
); 24 .: " " . ( , .
, . .
1929 18 .: "" ( , . -, .
); 13 : " " ( , .
, . , . ); 23 .: "" (
, . , . , . );
14 : "" ( , . , .
).
1930 25 .: "" ( , .
, . , . );
17 : " " ( , . ,
. ).
1931 26 .: " " ( , .
, . , . );
14 : " " ( , . , .
, . ); 26 .: "" , .
, . , . , ).
1932 23 .: " " ( , .
, . , . ).
1933 19 .: " " ( , .
, . ); 31 : " " ("")
( , . , . , .
); 26 :
"" ( , . ,. ,
. ); 16 .: "" ( , . ,
. ); 19 :
" " "" -- (
, . , . ).
1934 29 .: "" ( , . , . ,
. ); 26 : "" ( , . ,
. );
5 .: "" ( , . , . ,
. ).
1935 31 : "" ( , . , .
, . ); 4 .: " " ( ,
. , . , . ).
1936 26 : " " ( , .
, . ); 19 .: "" ( , .
, . , . ).
1937 20 .: " " ( -, .
, . -);
21 : " " ( , .
, . , . );
31 .: "" ( , . , . ).
1938 17 : "" ( , . , .
, . ); 19 .: "" ( , .
, . , . ); 29 .:
"" ( , . , . -, .
).
1939 19 " " ( , . , .
, . ); 28 .:
" " ( , . , . , .
).
1940 18 .: " " ( , . ,
. ); 30 .: "" ( , . ,
. , . ); 12 .: ""
( , . , . , . ).
1941 22 : "" ( , .
, . , . );
8 .: "" ( , . , . ,
. ); 17 : "" ( , .
, . ).
1942 6 .: " " ( , .
, . ).
1943 24 .: " " ( , .
, . ).
1944 28 .: "" ( , . -. .
).
1945 12 : " " ( , . , .
, . ); 19 .: " " (
, . , . , . ).
1946 30 .: " " ( , . , .
); 3 .: "" ( , . ,
. , . ).
1947 31 .: "" ( , . ,
. , . );
26 .: "-" ( , . ,
. ).
1948 11 .: "" ( , . -, .
, . ); 17 :
"" ( , . , . -).
1949 20 : " " ( , . , .
); 9 : "" ( -, . , .
); 5 .: "" ( , . , .
, . ).
1950 22 .: "" ( , . , .
, . ); 7 .:
" " ( , . , .
).
1951 20 .: "" ( , . , .
, . ); 7 .: " "
( , . , . , . ).
1952 10 .: "" ( , . -, .
); 22 .: "" ( , .
, . , . ); 13 : ""
( , . , . , . ).
1953 4 : "" ( , . ,
. , . );
25 . "" ( , . , . ,
. ).
1954 3 .: " " ( , . , .
, . ); 25 .: ""
( , . , . , .
).
1955 6 .: " " ( , .
, . ).
1956 24 : " " ( , . , .
, . ); 5 : "" ( , .
, . , . ,
).
1957 5 .: "-" ( , . ,
. , . ); 7 .:
"" ( , . , .
).
1958 17 : " "
- ( , . , . ); 18
.: " " ( , . , .
).
1959 28 .: " " ( , .
, . , .);
4 .: " " ( , . ,
. ); 4 .: " " ( ,
, . , . ).
1960 11 : " " ( , .
, . ); 25 .:
"" ( , , . ,
. , . ).
1961 9 : " " ( , .
, . , . ); 17 .: " "
( , . , . ).
1962 23 : "" ( , . , .
); 8 .: " " (. ,
. , . ).
1963 3 .: "" ( , . , .
); 26 : " " ( , . ,
. , . ); 8 .: " "
( , . , . ).

1918 6 : "" ( , . ,
. , , , ).
1920 20 .: "" ( , .
, . ).
1921 2 .: "-" ( , .
, . ); 4 .: " " (
, . , . , . , ,
).
1922 23 .: " " ( , .
, . ); 23 .: "" . (
, . , . ); 24 .: "" .
( , . ); 24 .: ""
. ( , , .
, . ).
1923 4 .: "" ( , .
, . ); 6 :
" " ( , .
, . );
6 : " " ( , .
, . ).
1924 26 : " " . (
, . , . );
26 : " " ( , . ,
. ); 29 .: " " ( , .
, . ).
1925 1 : "" ( , . . .
, ); 12 .: "" (
, . , . ).
" 1926 16 : "" ( . .
, . ).
'1927 2 .: " , , "
( , . , . 27 .: " "
("") . ( . . , .
); 11 .:
" " ( , . , .
).
1929 2 .: " " ( , .
, . ); 27 .:
"" ( , . , . 1930 25 .:
" " ( , . . . ); 26
.: " " ( , . , .
-. . ).
1931 8 .: "" ( , . ,
, . , ); 8 .:
"" ( , . , .
); 15 : "" ( , . ,
. , . ).
1932 13 : "" ( , . .
, . ); 7 .: " " ( ,
. , . , . ); 13 .: ""
( , . , . , . .
, ).
1933 13 .: " " ( , .
, . , . , . ).
' 1934 18 .: "" ( , . ,
. ); 28 .: " " ( ,
. , . . . ).
1935* 23 .: "" ( , . ,
. , . ).
1936 3 .: " " ( ,
. , . ).
1937 10 : " " ( , .
, . ).
1938 22 : "" ( , . , .
); 28 : " " - ( , .
, . -).
1939 22 : "" ( , . , .
).
1940 11 .: " " ( , .
, . ); 12 .: " " -
( , ; , . , . ).
1941 10 .: "" (. , . ,
, . , , ); 18 .: ""
(. , . , ).
1942 9 .: "" ( , . -, .
; 19 . 1945 - ., . ).
1943 27 : " " ( ,
. , . , . ).
1945 20 : "-" ( , .
, . , . );
22 : " " ( , .
, . , . ).
1946 8 .: "" ( , . , .
).
1947 8 .: " " . (
, . " . ); 12 : " "
( , . - , .
); 29 .: "" ( , .
, . ").
1948 30 .: "" ( , .
, . ); 15 .: "" ( ,
. , . ).
1949 14 : " " ( , . ,
. ); 26 .: " " ( , .
, . ).
1950 8 : " " ( , .
, . , . );
2 : "" ( , . , .
, ); 16 .: " " ( ,
. , . ).
1952 25 : " " ( , . , .
. , . ); 13 :
"" ( , . , . ).
1953 4 : " " ( , .
, . , . -).
1954 21 : "" ( , . , .
),
1955 28 : " " - ( ,
. , . ).
1956 29 .: "" ( , . , .
).
1957 22 .: " " ( , .
, . ).
1958 4 .: " " ( -, .
, . ); 2 : " " ( ,
. , . ).
1959 6 .: " " ( , .
, . ); 16 : " "
( , . , . ).
1960 24 : "" ( , .
, . ); 29 .: "" (
, . , . ).
1961 23 : " " ( , .
, . ); 14 .:
" " . ( ,
. , . ).
1962 24 : "" ( , .
, . , , - ); 15 .:
" " ( , . , .
, . ); 15 .: "" (
, . , . , . ).
1963 12 .; " " ( , .
, . ); 21 : "-" ( ,
. , . , ,
).
.: . ., , , 1859;
., .-,
1888-1898, , 1898; ., , , 1899; . .,
. . . , , 1906;
. 1907-1908, , 1908; "". 1890-1915;
- ., , "", 1923, 5, . 3-4;
. ., , " ",. 1924, 2, . 3-4;
. ., . 1898-1917, ., 1924; .,
"-" .-, " ", 1927, 25; , .,
1930; . ., . .
1890-1930 .. ., 1936: - . .,
.- . 1867-1884, .-., 1937;
., , .- ., 1937; . . (),
. 1890- 1910, .- ., 1940; . .
. . . (.
). . , .,. 1941; ., . .
, .: , .- .,
1947, . 11-38; . [. ], ., 1947, . 189- 250,
443-450; , .-.,
1948, . 51-56; . . . . -
. . , " ", 1948, 8, . 54- 56;
., , [. 1, 1949; .,
, .- ., 1950; . ., , . 1,
.., 1950; . ., - ,
.-., 1951; ., . ., 1952; . .,
, ., 1953; . ., . . , .,
1955; . ., .- . .,
. , .: , ., 1956,
. 64-94; . [], ., 1956, .
127-84; , .- ., 1957;
., , ., 1957;
. 1917-1957, ., 1958, . 3-76;
- .,
. . . , ., 1959;
, ., 1961; .,
, 2 ., ., 1962. .
. . .
18 . 1942 ( .
- ) "-". .
1943 ., 1945 . -. - 1942-43
: . . , . . -, . . , . . ,
. . , . . , . . , . . ; 1945
- . . , . . , . . , . .
, . . - . . . - 1942-47 - . .
-. - . : "" (1942), ""; " "
( 1943). - .
, -. 1944
- , - 1904-06 -
-. 1959 - . . -
.
40-60- . "" (1948),
" " - (1949), " "
, "" , " " .
( 1953), " " (1954), "
-" (1958), " " (1959),
" " ( " ", 1959), " ";
"" . ( 1960), " "
, " " ( 1961), "
" (1962), "" (1963).
- . . - " " (1954),
"" (1955), " " (1960); . "
" (1958).
. . - ( 1960) - . . - . . .
. . , - . . , . .
. - (1963): . . - . . -,
. . , . . , . . -, . . , .
. , . . -, . . , . . , . .
. . - 885 .
.: . . . -.
1942-62, [., 1962 ]. . .
- .
- , .
, - .
- ,
.
(

)- .
1918 ( . ) -.
1920- . , - . , 1921 - . .
. -, 1926 - . . . -,
1964-. .
20-. 30- . - . ,
. . .
: " " (1923), "" (1928), "
" (1931), " " (1931), "
" (1925), "" (1925). -
(", ", 1923, " ", 1925, )
(. ).
. 20- . - . .

. . .: " "
(1925), " " (
"", 1927), " "
(1934), " " (1933, 2- 1935), "" (1935)
.
.-. . " " (1935),
- (. 1936). . . . .
. . - . . .
. . : " "
(1937), " " (1938), "" -
(1938), "" (1939), "" (1939). 30-
. - : . . , . . , . .
, . . , . . -, . . , .
. -, . . , . . , . . , . .
, . . , . . -, . . , . .
, . . , . . .
- 1933. .:
"" (1933), " " (1935),
"" (1934), " " (1937);
. :
" " (1938, . ), "-" (1940,
. ) , " "
(1940, . ). - . .
, . . , . . .
, -, , . :
" " , "" , " "
( 1942), " " (1943).
40-50- .- " "
(1946, , . , . ), "
" (1950); . : "-" (1951, 2-
. 1953), "" (1952), " "
(1955), " " (1957), " " (1952), "
" (1955), "" (1962) , " "
(1957), "" (1963) ., -" " (1946)
"" (1949) , " " (1953), "
" (1954), "" (1957), " ",
"", "" (1960). - . . , .
. -, . . , . . , . . . , .
. , . . , . . . , . . .
. - (1964): - .
. . , . . , . . . , .
. , . . , - . . . .
. . - . . . . , -
. . , . . , . . , . - . .
; . . - . . . . .
- 1151 .
, . . 465-466. .:
. ., 1961. . .
- ,
. 1936 (.
), . -
- . - . .
1937 - .
, . .
. . -. -,
- 1939 ( -)
. -. - - , 1958 (
) -. ,
.
, 1961
. - (135 . )
. ( 1940)
- - . . -
.
- . : . .
, . . , . . , . . , . . , .
. , . . , . . , . . -
. - (1963): . . , . .
, . . , . . , . . , . .
, . . , . . , . . -, . . , .
. , . . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . , . . , . II. , . . .
-
-:
., XIX XX ,
.- ., 1939; . , .- ., 1939; , .- ., 1940;
. ., , ., 1941; .
., , .- ., 1948;
, XIX ., .- ., 1957; .
, .- ., 1958; .,
XIX ., . - ., 1958;
. ., 1956; .,
, ., 1957; ,
.-., 1958;
. .- ., 1947; .,
, ., 1959; . ., 1962;
. ., , ., 1962; . .,
, ., 1959; , ., 1962;
., , .- ., 1956; 3
. ., - . .- ., 1961; , .,
1959; , [. I], 1917-1934,
., 1963.
1961 -
. . ( )
- ,
. . . - , .
.: -. ,
.- ., 1947. .
. 1936
. . . - 1940 .
. . 1941-49- . . -. -
-. , ,
, .
40-50- .: " " (1938), "
" (1940), " " (1942); ""
(1943), " " (1946), " "
(1946, . . , 1947), " " (1948), ""
(1950). , - , .
. ,
: " !" (1955). " " (1957) ,
" " (1959), " "
(1961), " " (1962), ", 38" (1963).
- . : " " (1938), "" (1940),
"" (1951), " " (1956),
" " " " (1953) .
1949-56 - . . . .
, . , .
, : " "
(1951; . . , 1952), " " (1952), " "
- (1955) .
- (1963)-. . . . . (. .),
. . . . , . . , . . .;
. . . .
.: ., , [., 1959];
., -.
, . " ", 1955, 13 . 7.
'.
1933. " " .
1953 " ". - : . .
, . . , . . , . . .
. -- . . (1933-37). 1938
. - (. - ). 1937-46 .
- . . . . -.
.
. -
. .: " " (1937), "" (1938);
" " (1940; .
-). . - "
" (1938, . , -, - ).
, - .
1945 - . . :
"" (1947; . ., 1947), " " .
. (1947), " " (1948) .
. . (1951-55) - .
. : "" - (1953) ""
- (1955). , , ,
,
-. : "
" (1952), " " , " "
( 1953), " " (1959). . .
- :
. . (1947-49), . . (1949-51), . . '
(1956-58), . (1958-59), . . (1959-60).
- (1963): . . . . , . .
, . . , . . , . 3. , . .
, . . , . . , . . . . .
- ( 1961) . . . : " "
(1937), " " (1942), "" (1942);
" " (1941), "" (1948), " "
(1950); " " (1957), " "
(1957), " " . (1961), " "
, "" ( 1962), "" (1963) .

.
1929 "- ", - 1931
. 1935 -
". . - ".
, . - . .
(1935-49 1955). 1935-37 : . .
, . . , . . , . . , . . , .
. , . . , . . , . . , . .
, II. . , . . . - . . , .
. , . . -, . . , . . .
, 1934,- . . , . .
, . . , . . .
.
, - .
- .
- . ,
. ( . ),
.
- , , ' ,
, .
- , , ,
.
- . . , . . , . .
, . . , . . . .
. -
. . . : "" (1940 1960),
"" (1944 1962), " " (1956), "
" (1957). . . . : " "
(1937), " " (1938 1956), " " (1939).
- (" ", 1937),
(" ", 1939). (""), ("
") . 30- . -
. . - " " (1936),
" " (1937), " " (1938),
" " (1939)- .
1941 - -" "
, .
1945. 40-.-
. . .
" " (1946), " " (1946),
" " (1947), " -"
(1947), " " . (1948), "
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50 - 60- . - .
1958 "", 1960 . .
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, , 1914;
1. . [. ], , .
1-2, ., 1938-39; - .,
, .- ., 1948; ., ,
.- ., 1950.

















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