., .

8.

- , . ( ), . , -. , - .

8.1.

: (1857 - 1929), (1874 - 1948), (1884 - 1963), (1862 - 1945).

8.1.1.

; . .

) . ( ) , - .

) . , . , .

) , .

) () , , . . , , .

) .

, , . .

8.1.2. .

: [ The Theory of the Leisure Class ] (1899); [ The Theory of Business Enterprise ] (1904)

8.1.2.1.

( ) . . , . , , [1] , , .. . , , , , .

, . , , .

) , , [2] . , .

) , .

) . .

) .

) , .

) .

, . , . , , , , . , .. . . , , , . .

, . ( , .. ), . . ( ), ( ) ( ), - , . , , - . - , , , , , .

, , , , . , . , , [3] . , , .

. - , . , - , , - , , (, ). , , , . , , .

, . , , .

8.1.2.2.

, . . , . . . .

, () . , . . . (, , [.. ] ), , - - . .

, , , . , . , , ( ). , , , , , . , , , .

. , , , , , .. - . . , , . , . , .. .

8.1.3. . .

: [ Business Cycles ] (1913); . [Business Cycles. The Problem and its Setting] (1927)

. .. . . .

. , . . . , , (. ) ( , , ; . 8.2.1). , / (.. ) .

. . . ; () .

. , . . , () . , . . . . , . - . . . , , , , ( , ..). , . , - , , , - , , , .. .

( ). . . , ... , , [4] . - , , . ... , , [5] .

, , . , . . . , .

, . . (. 6.6.1 6.6.2).

8.1.4. . .

: ; [ Business Acceleration and the Law of Demand ; A Technical Factor in Economic Cycles ] (1917) [6] ; [ The Economics of Overhead Costs ] (1923)

. . . , . . , , . , . , , . . , () ( , , ). . , . , . . . , . [7] ( , . . ).

. . - . [ overhead cost ]. , - , .. . . . , . , , , . . . [ workable competition ], , . , - - . . . ; , , . , .

, . . . . . , . , - . . . [8] , ( - . 6.5.5). -, . . . . . () . , .

8.1.5. .

: [ Institutional Economics ] (1934)

, . , . . - .

. . , . , .

- , . , , - () , . . , - , , [9] . .

, , , .

- , (). , . , , . - , , ..

, , , . - . , , , .. , , .

, . , , , , . . , .

, , , , , .

, . , , , , - .

, . ( ) . , - , . , .

[ workable rules ], . , , , - , . , . , , , , , . , .

8.2.

XX . XX . .

8.2.1.

: (. 1910), (. 1932), (. 1920).

: . (1937) [10] ; . . , , [The Economic Institutions of Capitalism. Firms, Markets, Relational Contracting] (1985) [11] ; , [Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance] (1990) [12]

( ) . , . (, , , . , , - ).

.

) , .. .

) () ; . . (. 8.1.3 8.1.4). , , , , , , , . [13] , .. / .

) - , - , .

, . , - , ( ). - . (, , ..) , , [14] . :

) ;

) ;

) ;

) ;

) .

; , ; - , .. , , , , , (, ) (, ).

, . , , , [15] . .

: . ( ) - , . , ( , ) , . , , . , ( ) .

( ) - , .. , , , . , - , . , , - , - , .

(. , . ) , . 1970- . ( ), . , , - - , , . , , ( ). , - , , , ( ), .

, , . [ path dependence ]: , , . .

. , . , , . . , ; . , , - , . , , . , , , , . , .

8.2.2.

: , ,

: . , . [ An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change ) (1982)

 

- . , . . [16] , ( ) 1982 , . . , 2000 . .

) . , . .

) . , . ( ) .

) . , , , (, ..)

) . (. . 6.6); , - . , . (. 8.2.1.4) [17] ( . ), . [ hysteresis ] [18] . [ lock - in ] , , .

) . , , . ... , ( ) [19] . , , , .

( ... [20] ) , , . , , . . , [21] , . .

-, , . , . .

-, ( ) .

-, .

) . - , . , , - , - .

8.2.3.

: , , , -

 

: . , . . [Les economies de la grandeur] (1987)

 

- - , 1980-1990- . , , . , - - - . , , .

•  1) . , . , , . . . . , . , , , .

•  2) . . , , [22] . . , , , . . , .

•  3) . . . . , , , .

•  4) . . (, ) (, ).

•  5) . . , , , .

•  6) . , . , .

•  7) . . , .

, , . , 1990- , , , , .

. , , , , .

, .. , ( ) . , , . .

, , , , .

, - , , , , , .

[1] Veblen T. Why Is Economics Not An Evolutionary Science? // Quarterly Journal of Economics. July. 1898. P. 389.

[2] Rutherford M. Institutions in Economics. The Old and The New Institutionalism. Cambridge . 1995. P . 135.

[3] . . ., 1984. . 202.

[4] . . . . ., ., 1930. . 63.

[5] . . 186.

[6] Journal of Political Economy . Vol . 25. P . 217-235.

[7] . . . :: . 2. . . 1999. . 54-72 507-529.

[8] , , , 1909 . : . ., ., 1930.

[9] Commons J. Institutional Economics // American Economic Review. 1931. Vol. 21. P . 652.

[10] Economica . N . S . Vol . 4. November . P .356-405. , , , : . 2. . ., 1999. . 11-32.

[11] - 11 , . 121.

[12] 1997 , . 123.

[13] . . , , . ., 1996. . 97.

[14] . . . ., 1999. . 158. , ( . , ) . (, ..). , - , (.. , ..) .

[15] . , . ., 1997. . 17.

[16] (1883-1950), . , . . [ Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung ] ., 1982. 1912 .

[17] , . , . . 8.2.

[18] . 6.7.3, .

[19] ., . . ., 2000. . 120.

[20] . . 31. . . , .

[21] . , ().

[22] . // . 1997. N 10. . 87. .


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