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1. .: Abrams v. United States, 250 US 616, 624 (1919) (Holmes J. dissenting). . : Mark A. Graber, Transforming Free Speech: The Ambiguous Legacy of Civil Liberalism (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1991); John Keane, The Media and Democracy (Cambridge, Mass.: Polity Press, 1991). .: Cass R. Sunstein, Democracy and the Problem of Free Speech (New York: The Free Press, 1993); Owen M. Fiss, Free Speech and Social Structure, Iowa Law Review 71(1986), 1405. . : Monroe B. Price, The Market for Loyalties: Electronic Media and the Global Competition for Allegiances, Yale Law Journal 104 (1994), 667.

2. . .: Anthony Smith, The Geopolitics of Information: How Western Culture Dominates the World (Boston: Faber & Faber, 1980), Jeremy Tunstall, The Media are American (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977).

3. .: Richard A. Posner, Free Speech in an Economic Perspective, Suffolk University Law Review 20 (1986), 1, 37.

4. . David Yassky, Eras of the First Amendment, Columbia Law Review 91(1991), 1699. .: Leonard Williams Levy, Emergence of a Free Press (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985). , (Free Exercise Clause). , , . ., : Reynolds v. United States, 98 US 145, 166 (1878). (The Establishment Clause) . .

5. .: C. Edwin Baker, Advertising and a Democratic Press (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994); Patrick M. Fahey, Comment: Advocacy Group Boycotting of Network Television Advertisers and its Effects on Programming Content, University of Pennsylvania Law Review 140 (1991), 647.

6. .: Monroe B. Price, Comparing Broadcast Structures: Transnational Perspectives and Post-Communist Examples, Cardozo Arts and Entertainment Law Journal 11 (1993), 275.

7. .: Ronald H. Coase, The Market for Goods and the Market for Ideas, American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings 64 (1974), 384; Ronald H. Coase, Advertising and Free Speech, Journal of Legal Studies 6 (1977): 1; Bruce M. Owen, Economics and Freedom of Expression: Media Structure and the First Amendment (Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Company, 1975). .: Stephen A. Gardbaum, Broadcasting, Democracy, and the Market, Georgetown Law Journal 82 (1993), 373; Paul G. Stern, Note: A Pluralistic Reading of the First Amendment and its Relation to Public Discourse, Yale Law Journal 99 (1990), 925.

8. .: Anthony Downs, An Economic Theory of Democracy (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1957). 20776; Charles Lindblom, Politics and Markets (New York: Basic Books, 1977), 13. , , Associated Press v. United States, 326 US 1, 28 (1945) (Frankfurter, J., concurring) ( , .) , ... , , .

9. Albert O. Hirschmann, Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Finns, Organizations, and States (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970).

10. Jacques Ellul, Propaganda: The Formation of Mens Attitudes (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965), 1402.

11. ., : Zvi Gitelman, Exiting from the Soviet Union: Emigres or Refugees?, Michigan Yearbook of International Legal Studies 3 (1982), 43; Christopher Greenwood, Free Movement of Workers under EEC Law and English Law, New Law Journal 133 (1983), 933.

12. . ., .: Richard Briffault, Our Localism: Part II Localism and Legal Theory, Columbia Law Review 90 (1990), 346; Vicki Been, Exit as a Constraint on Land Use Exactions: Rethinking the Unconstitutional Conditions Doctrine, Columbia Law Review 91 (1991), 473, 51625. . : Charles A. Tiebout, A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures, Journal of Political Economics 64 (1956), 416, 418, 420.

13. .: Richard H. Pildes, The New Public Law: The Unintended Cultural Consequences of Public Policy, Michigan Law Review 89 (1991), 936.

14. . .: Zuo Liu Zhen, Broadcasting for the People, To the People, InterMedia 22 (Apr. 1994), 10. , , 1992 , 700 . Sun Lin, Foreign Capital and Equipment Fuel a Telecommunications Liftoff, InterMedia 22 (Apr. 1994), 22.

15. R. H. Coase , : .: Coase, The Market for Goods and the Market for Ideas, 386.

16. . , . ( ) . .

17. .: Brian McNair, Glasnost, Perestroika and the Soviet Media (New York: Routledge, 1991); Rochelle B. Price, Jamming and the Law of International Communications, Michigan Yearbook of International Legal Studies 5 (1984), 391.

18. .: Ronald H. Coase, British Broadcasting: A Study in Monopoly (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1950).

19. European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms ( ), 4 Nov. 1950, art. 10(1), 213 UNTS 221.

20. 12 Eur. Ct HR (ser. A) at 321(1990).

21. Ibid. at 485.

22. .: Barendt, Broadcasting Law, 22325.

23. Council Directive 89/552 of 3 Oct. 1989 on Television Without Frontiers ( 89/552 3 1989 ), 1989 O. J. (L 298) 23.

24. European Convention on Transfrontier Television ( ), 5 May 1989, Europ. TS No. 132; . : Television Without Frontiers: Green Paper on the Establishment of the Common Market for Broadcasting Especially by Satellite and Cable, COM (84) 300 final ( ); Barendt, Broadcasting Law, 22236. . : Kenneth Dyson and Peter Humphreys (eds.), The Political Economy of Communications: International and European Dimensions (New York: Routledge, 1990).

25. .: Barendt, Broadcasting Law, 235.

26. Laurence G. C. Kaplan, The European Communitys Television Without Frontiers Directive: Stimulating Europe to Regulate Culture, Emory International Law Review 8 (1994), 255, 3415. , , , , (Hilary Clarke, EU Vows to Move Forward; Consensus on Maintaining Identity Sought as AV Confab Opens, Hollywood Reporter, 1 July 1994). .: Hollywood Urges End to Film War, Guardian (London), 6 Sept. 1994, 7.

27. . : Eli M. Noam, Television in Europe (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).

28. Willem F. Korthals Altes, European Law: A Case Study of Changes in National Broadcasting, Cardozo Arts and Entertainment Law Journal 11(1993), 313, 318.

29. Joke J. A. Pelle and Piet W. C. Akkermans, The Dutch Broadcasting System: A Basic Right Caught between Dutch Constitutional Law and European Community Law, RED/ERPL 2/1(1990), 39, 41.

30. , . .: Case 353/89, Commission v. Netherlands, 1991 ECR I4069; Case 288/89, Stichting Collectieve Antennevoorziening Gouda v. Commissariaat Voor de Media, 1991 ECR I4007; Case 325/85, Bond Van Adverteerders v. The State (Netherlands), 1988 ECR 2085. Commission v. Netherlands 59 , , , . - , , , . .: Barendt, Broadcasting Law, 234.

31. .: Aernout J. Nieuwenhuis, The Crumbling Pillars of Dutch TV, InterMedia 20 (Aug.Sept. 1992), 37.

32. Asu Aksoy and Kevin Robins, Gecekondu-Style Broadcasting in Turkey: A Confrontation of Cultural Values, InterMedia 21 (June 1993), 15. .: Haluk Sahin and Asu Aksoy, Global Media and Cultural Identity in Turkey, Journal of Communication 43 (1992), 31.

33. Noam, Television in Europe, 258.

34. Ibid.

35. Aksoy and Robins, Gecekondu-Style Broadcasting in Turkey, 15.

36. Ibid.

37. .: Christine De Keersmaeker, Organisation and Structure of Radio and Television Broadcasting in Belgium, Entertainment Law Review 3 (Sept.Oct. 1992), 16470.

38. .: Ad van Loon, Pluralism, Concentration and Competition in the Media Sector, CDMM (92) 8 Vol. I (Strasburg: Council of Europe, 1991), 81. Van Loon - .

39. European Court of Justice ( ), Commission of the European Communities v. Kingdom of Belgium, European Court of Justice, Case C211/91 (16 Dec. 1992).

40. .: Vincent Porter and Suzanne Hasselbach, Pluralism, Politics and the Marketplace: The Regulation of German Broadcasting (New York: Routledge, 1991).

41. Ulrich Preuss, The Constitutional Concept of the Public Sphere according to the German Basic Law, : Andras Sajo and Monroe E. Price (eds.), Rights of Media Access (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, ).

42. .: Stuart Ewen, Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Social Roots of the Consumer Culture (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976); Michael Schudson, Advertising, the Uneasy Persuasion: Its Dubious Impact on American Society (New York: Basic Books, 1984). .: C. Edwin Baker, Advertising and a Democratic Press (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994).

43. .: Schudson, Advertising, the Uneasy Persuasion; Cecilia Tichi, Electronic Hearth: Creating an American Television Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).

44. , , . ., .: Erhard U. Heidt, Mass Media, Cultural Tradition and National Identity (Fort Lauderdale, Fbr.: Breitenbach, 1987), 157, 1603; James Lull, China Turned On: Television, Reform, and Resistance (New York: Routledge, 1991), 1656. -- 16 1994 : . , , ... , , , . [] ... [] . , . [ ] . ... ... , (Emani-Kashani, West Interested in Transfer not of Technology but of Corruption, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, available in LEXIS, News Library, BBCSWB File).

45. ... [ ] , , ... , ... ... , . (Zhao Shuifu ( , ), Foreign Dominance of Chinese Broadcasting: Will Hearts and Minds Follow?, InterMedia 22 (Apr.May 1994), 8, 9).

46. .: Presidents Task Force on US Government International Broadcasting, The Report of the Presidents Task Force on US Government International Broadcasting (Washington: Department of State Publication 9925; Dec. 1991).

47. . .: Metro Broadcasting, Inc. v. FCC, 497 US 547 (1990).

48. . : International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ( ), art. 19, para. 2 ( ), 23 1976 . : Richard B. Lillich (ed.), International Human Rights, Documentary Supplement (Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1991).

49. .: Steven H. Shiffrin, Government Speech, UCLA Law Review 27 (1980), 565, 571.

50. .: Owen M. Fiss, State Activism and State Censorship, Yale Law Journal 100 (1992), 2087; Owen M. Fiss, Essays Commemorating the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Harvard Law Review: Why the State?, Harvard Law Review 100 (1987), 781.

51. .: Elizabeth A. Downey, A Historical Survey of the International Regulation of Propaganda, Michigan Yearbook of International Legal Studies 5 (1984), 341; Richard A. Falk, On Regulating International Propaganda: A Plea for Moderate Aims, Law and Contemporary Problems 31(1966), 622, 623. . , , , (Ellul, Propaganda, 61). . : L. John Martin, International Propaganda (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1958), 1020; Garth S. Jowett and Victoria ODonnell, Propaganda and Persuasion (London: Sage, 1986).

52. , , , . .: Walter Lippmann, Public opinion (London: Allen & Unwin, 1922). . Kevin Robins, Frank Webster, and Michael Pickering, Propaganda, Information and Social Control : Jeremy Hawthorn (ed.), Propaganda, Persuasion and Polemic (Baltimore, Md.: Edward Arnold, 1987), 118.

53. ( ) , , , , . . .: Ad Van Loon, National Media Policies under EEC Law Taking into Account Fundamental Rights, Media Law and Practice 14 (1993), 17.

54. .: Leonard Zeidenberg, President Pushes TV Marti; ITU Pushes Back, Broadcasting 118 (9 Apr. 1990), 37, (International Frequency Registration Board (IFRB)) ITU - . . : Steven Ruth, Comment: The Regulation of Spillover Transmissions from Direct Broadcast Satellites in Europe, Federal Communications Law Journal 42 (1989), 107.

55. International Convention Concerning the Use of Broadcasting in the Cause of Peace ( ), 23 Sept. 1936, 186 LNTS 301, art. I. . : Litvinov Agreement ( ) , , , Exchange of Communications between the President of the United States and Maxim M. Litvinov Peoples Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, American Journal of International Law 28 Supp. (1934), 2.

56. , , . , ., I Convention Concerning the Use of Broadcasting in the Cause of Peace, , 19 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

57. .: Television Without Frontiers Directive. . : Television Without Frontiers: Green Paper.

58. Austrian radio cases II (Informationsverein Lentia et al. V. Austria), Council of Europe, European Commission of Human Rights, Report of the Commission (adopted on 9 Sept. 1992), para. 77.

59. , , European Convention on Human Rights. Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 4 Nov. 1950, art. 10, para. 2.

60. . 1960- (All-Receiver Act) , ( detente (), ), .

61. , .: Red Lion Broadcasting Co., Inc. v. FCC, 395 US 367 (1969), , . .: Owen, Economics and Freedom of Expression: Media Structure and the First Amendment. , 1976 . , : Rob Nixon, Keeping Television Out: The South Africa Story, InterMedia 20 (Aug.Sept. 1992), 356.

62. Jack M. McLeod and Lee B. Becker, Testing the Validity of Gratification Measures through Political Effects Analysis, : Jay G. Blumler and Elihu Katz (eds.), The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research (London: Sage Publications, 1974), 137.

63. .: Jeri Laber, The Dictatorship Returns, New York Review of Books, 40/13 (15 July 1993), 424. , . , , , .

64. , .

65. William H. McNeill, Fundamentalism and the World of the 1990s, : Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby (eds.), Fundamentalisms and Society: Reclaiming the Sciences, the Family, and Education, eds. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 55873. . : Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations?, Foreign Affairs 72 (1993), 22; , . 3.

66. Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1983), 175.


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