. : ?

: , , , , . , , , . . , , .

, (Hom. Od. VI, 210-224; XXIII, 67). , , (Il. XXIII, 683; 685; 710; Od. 76). , , , , (Schol. ad Hom. Il. XXIII, 683; Eustath. ad Hom. Il. XXIII, 683 (P. 1324, 15sqq.)).1 . , . , , , , , , - . , , .

, , . , , ,

(Schol. ad Thuc. I, 6, 5; Paus., I, 44, 1; Etym. Mag. s.v. gumnavsia; Eustath. ad Hom. Il. XXIII, 683 (P. 1324, 13sqq.); IG, VII, 52, 5-6). 15- , , 32- (, 720 652 . . .).2 , (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. VII, 72, 3-4).

, . , , , (Thuc. I, 6, 5: ouj polla; e[th; Plat. Resp. V, 452c: ouj polu;" crovno").3 - . , . . , VI . . . .4 . . , V . . ., - .5 . .6 . , , , , , , VI . . . .7 , . . , , , , .8 . . , , ,

, .9 . , , , , .10 , , , .

. . , VII . . . . ( 650 . . .) .11 VI . . . . , VI . . . , - .12 , VIII . . ., , - .

, , . , .13 , , , , , (Anach., 36).14 , , (Paus. I, 44, 1; .: Plat. Rep. V, 452d). , , , . , Etymologicon magnum (s.v. gumnavsia) : " (perizwvmata) . , ,

. (novmo" ejtevqh) ". : " , , , , " (Eustath. ad Hom. Il. XXIII, 683 (P. 1324, 13sqq.)). (Orig., XVIII, 17, 2): ", , . , , . , , (permisit), " (.: Schol. Ven. ad Hom. Il. XXIII, 638). , , . , , (Paus., V, 6, 7-8). -.15 . , , , , .16 , .

"" (gumnavsion) "" (gumnov") (Etym. Mag. s.v. gumnavsia; Eustath. ad Hom. Il. XXIII, 683 (P. 1324, 15)). . palaivstra gumnavsion , , , , - , - , (Plut. Quest. conv. II, 4 = Moral., 638c-d).17 . , VI . . .: (.: Plut. Sol. 1; Athen. XIII, 602d).18

; , .19 , , "" , IV . . .20 , , ( : GDI. 4991. ll. 40-42; Suid. s.v. drovmo"). , , , (Athen., I, 14d-e).21 , . , VII . . . .22 , , , , , , , , .23 . , -, , , , .24

, , (Plat. Leg. VII, 832d-833c; Aristoph. Pax. 354-355; Lucian. Anach. 24; 28; 30; Philostr. Gymnast. 19; 43; Plut. Quest. conv. II, 5 = Moral., 639d-640a).25 . . , (Philostr. Gymnast. 8).

, "" (th;n o{plisin podhvrh). , , (Plat. Symp. 182b; Theoph. Hist. plant. IX, 20, 5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Boiwtiva; Eustath. Comm. ad Dion. Perieg. 426 (GGM. II. P. 218)). (371 . . .) , (Quest. conv. II, 5 = Moral., 639f).

, (kalokajgaqiva) - (Plat. Symp. 216b-219e). . , . - , , -, . , , , , . . : " , , , , , . , : ".26 . , ( V-IV . . .) , (Xen. An. VII, 4, 7-8).

, , . . (Plat. Symp. 180a; Xen. Symp. 8, 31; Aeschyn. I, 142; Mart. XI, 43, 9-10; Plut. Amatorius. 17, 10 = Moral., 761a; Lucian. Amores. 54). VI . . . (Plut. Sol. 1).27 , ,

(Theog. 1335-1336; Plat. Charm. 154a; Leg. I, 636b-c; Symp. 217c; Aristoph. Nub. 972-978; Pax. 762-763; Vesp. 1025; Plut. Quest. Rom. 40 = Moral. 274d; Lucian. Amores. 3; 9).28 , (Plat. Symp. 217c). , , .

, (Athen. XIII, 602f; .: Plat. Leg. I, 636d).29 , , , , (Plat. Resp. V, 452c; Strab. X, 4, 17-18). (Pol. II, 5, 6 (1272a)) , . . . "" "" . , , (Strab. X, 4, 21). , . , , . , , (Plut. Amatorius. 17, 10 = Moral., 761a). , , (Apollod., III, 5, 5; Ael. Var. hist. XIII, 5; Athen. XIII, 602). , .30 . "" ,

, (Amm. XXXI, 9, 5; .: Procop. Bel. Got. II, 14, 36).

, , , (Plat. Leg. VIII, 836b-c).31 , , (Xen. Lac. pol. 5, 2; 6, 1; Plat. Leg. I, 625e-626a; Plut. Lyc. 24-25; Quest. Graec. 21 = Moral., 296d).32 (Plut. Amatorius. 17, 4-9 = Mor., 760e-f; Athen. XIII, 601e). , . , , . , , (Xen. Lac. pol. 1, 5; Plut. Lyc. 15). (Athen. XIII, 602d-e: " , -, , "). / . , , , , , (Xen. Cyn. 12, 20; Lac. pol. 2, 13; Plat. Symp. 181d; Plut. Lyc. 17-18; Lucian. Amores. 23; 46; 51; Ael. Var. hist. III, 10). "" (Thuc. VI,54; Theocrit. 12; Plut. Alcib. 4; Pelop. 19; Amatorius. 17, 4-9 = Moral., 760e-f; Ael. Var. hist. XII,12).33 , (Xen. Lac. pol. 2, 13; Symp. 8, 23, 35; Plut. Instit. Lacon. 7 = Moral., 237b-c; Max. Tyr. XXVI, 8; .: Ael. Var. hist. XII, 12). , ,

(Xen. Lac. pol. 2, 12; Symp. 8, 34; Plat. Symp. 182b).

, , .34 , (XIII, 602a): " , , . , , , , , ". , , (Xen. Symp. 8, 32-33; Plat. Symp. 178e-179b; Onas. 24; Excerpta Polyaeni, 14, 8). IV . . . / (Xen. Symp. 8, 34). . , (Xen. Hell. IV, 8, 39; .: Xen. Symp. 8, 35). , (Plut. Amatorius. 17, 14 = Moral. 761e; Ael. Var. hist. III, 9; .: Strab. X, 4, 16). , (Plut. Amatorius. 17, 10 = Moral., 761a; Pelop. 18; Symp. 618d). " ", 378 . . . , (Plut. Pelop. 18-19; Polyaen. II, 5, 1; Athen. XIII, 602a).35 , (424 . . .), "" "": hJnivocoi parabavtai (Diod. XII, 70, 1). . . , - , .36 - : , - , : " " (. -: Plut. Pelop. 19; .: Amatorius. 16, 17 = Moral., 759d-e).

- . , - -. , . , . (Theophr. Charac. 4, 7; Plut. Apoph. reg et duc. 25, 19 = Moral., 178c-d).37 . , (Hesiod. Op. 391; .: Verg. Georg. I, 299). , , , .38 .39 , (Xen. An. IV, 4, 12). , .40 , (Hesych. s.v. gumnopaivdia). (I, 20f): ", , , . : ". , .41 , , , .

- . , .42 , , (Polyb. II, 28, 8; 29, 7; Liv. XXXVIII, 21, 9; Diod. V, 29, 1-2; Plut. Crass. 25; Aul. Gel. IX, 13; Hdn. III, 14, 7).

. , (Cic. Dis. Tuscul. IV, 33; Plut. Quest. Rom. 40 = Moral., 274d-e; Tac. Ann. XIV, 20). , , . , , , (Diod. V, 29, 1-2; Aul. Gel. IX, 13). , , , . . , : " , , , , . ".43 . , . ?

, , .44 362 . . . , . (Ages. 34,8-11): ", , , , . , , , ; , , , , , - ; , , . , , - , , - , . , , , ".

- (Var. hist. VI, 3): " , , , , ; , , , ".

, (.: Plut. Ages. 23, 6-11; 24, 1). . ? ? , , - . , , . , : . , (20 ) , . , , . . -, , , , , . , (Hdt. VI, 117; Plut. Thes. 35; Just. XX, 3, 8). , . . , , , , .45 . , , . ? , , , , , . , , , - (Plut. Apoph. Lacon. 28, 2 = Moral. 220a; Apoph. mul. Lacon. 5, 17 = Moral. 241f). . , - , ,

, , , . , .

, , , . , . , , , , , , . , VI . . ., .

( VIII . . .) , . , .46 , .47 , , , , .48 , , , , , . (VIII-VII . . .) : , .49 : (Diod., V, 29, 1-2; Hdn. III, 14, 7). , .

( 640 . . .) , , .50 ,

, VII . . . (6, 24 (Diehl)). (VII-VI . . .), : , - , .51 , VII-VI . . . .52 .53 VI . . . , .54 , , .55 , . , , : - , . , ,56 , .

, , . , ( VI . . .), , , . , , (Diod. XII, 9, 6; .: Paus. VI, 14, 5-8).57 , , (Athen. XII, 537e). (Plut. Anton. 4). ,

, . , : , , ( VII . . .; Polyaen. II, 31, 4). . (Paus. IV, 27, 1). , . . , , , , , , .

(Plat. Leg. VII, 823c; Xen. Cyn. 12, 1-9; 13, 11; Cyr. I, 2, 10; De re eq. 8, 10; Aristot. Pol. I, 3, 8 (1256b); Caes. B.G. I, 1; Arr. Cyn. 1, 1; AP, VI, 188). , , . , . .58 , 59 . , , , .60 , IV . . . " ", " ", .61 .62 , , ,

, .

. , IV . . . " ".63 , . , (448-442 . . .), (350- . . .).64 . . , . , , (440-435 . . .) , (-, , , -), , .65 ( 400 . . .) , , . , . , .66 , , , : , , -.67 , ( V . . .) .68 " " ( IV . . .) .69 .

V - IV . . . . : , , .70 , , .71 , , , " ", , , . , (424 . . .) -, , , -, .72 V . . ., , , , .73

, , , , , (.: Thuc. IV, 34, 4; Schol. ad Thuc. IV, 34, 4). , 460 . . .74 - , .75

, . , 720 . . ., , , , . , . ,

. , , ,76 , , , (Liv. XXXVIII,21,9). " " , (Polyb. II, 28, 8; Diod., V, 29, 1-2). , . , . , , , , , , (Lucian. Anach. 36). , -. (Hdt. I, 10; Plat. Symp. 182b; .: Thuc. I, 6, 5; Schol. ad Thuc. I, 6, 5). , (Xen. Ages. 1, 28). , -. , -, V-IV . . .

, , . , , . . , . , . .77 , - , . . (, ) . , . , , (720 . . .). , .

. VII-VI . . . , . , , - . , , , (, ). , : , . , , , , . . , , . , . , , . , : -, . , , , . , , , : - , -.78

, , , , . , . , .79 , , , . , , . , VIII . . ., , , ,

. : , . , . VI . . . , , - . . . V . . ., , , , . , , . , , . IV-III . . . . , , . . . , , , , , , , -, . , , , , , .

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3 20-70 , .. 510 . . . (McDonnell M. The Introduction... P. 189, n. 40).
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75 .: .. : // -3. . . . . 22-23 1999 . ., 1999. . 10-13.
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79 .: . . ... . 69.

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