.

1. Emerson, Circles.
2. Henry Adams, The Rule of Phase Applied to History (1909), :
The Tendency of History (New York, 1919), 167.
3. Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams (Boston, 1918),
ch. Ill, XXXIY.
4. William James, Is Life Worth Living?, : The Will to Believe
and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy (New York, 1897), 54
5. Ibid., 53.
6. William James, Pragmatism (1907), Lecture Two.
7. W.C. Ford, ed., A Cycle of Adams Letters, 1861-1865 (Boston,
1920), I, 135.

I. :
?


America: Experiment or Destiny?, : American Historical Review,
June 1977.
1. Vine Deloria, Jr., The North Americans, :
Crisis, : Congressional Record, 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (1976),
E 2494-95 (daily ed.).
2. Harriet Beecher Stowe, Oldtown Folks (Boston, 1869), 368.
3. Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.
4. New England's True Interest, : The Puritans, ed. Perry Miller
and Thomas H.Johnson (1938; New York, Torchbook reprint,
1963), I, 244.
5. Miller and Johnson, Puritans, II, 82-83.
6. Leopold von Ranke, On Progress in History, : von Ranke, The
Theory and Practice of History, ed. G.G.Iggers and Konrad von
Moltke (Indianapolis, 1973), 53.
7. Jaroslav Pehkan, The Lessons of History, : The Nature of a
Humane Society, ed. H.O.Hess (Philadelphia, 1977), 35.
8. Number 34.
643


9. The Winter of Criticism :
Monthly Anthology and Boston Review, October 1805, : The
Federalist Literary Mind, ed. Lewis P. Simpson (Baton Rouge,
1962), 209. 230.
10. Lucien Pnce, ed., Dialogues of Alfred North Whitehead (Boston,
1954), 161, 203.
11. B: W.O.Clough. ed.. Intellectual Origins of American National
Thought (1955; New York, Corinth reprint, 1961), 71.
12. The Age of Tacitus, : Monthly Anthology, July 1807, :
Simpson, ed., Federalist Literary Mind, 50.
13. , -
. Meyer Reinhold, ed., The Classick Pages: Classical
Reading of Eighteenth-Century Americans (University Park, Pa.,
1975), 121. . : Richard M.Gummere, The American
Colonial Mind and the Classical Tradition (Cambridge, Mass.,
1963), passim.
14 J.G.A. Pocock, The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political
Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition (Princeton, 1975).
To , : Gordon S.Wood,
The Creation of the American Republic, 1776-1787. (Chapel
Hill, 1969), : Gerald Stourzh, Alexander Hamilton and the
Idea of Republican Government (Stanford, 1970). -
, -
VI ,
(Classick
Pages, 121), .: John P.Diggms, The Lost Soul
of American Polities' Virtue, Silf-Interest, and the Foundations of
Liberalism (New York, 1984).
15 Henry Maine, Popular Government (1885, Indianapolis, 1976),
201.
16. .: Joseph Elhs, Habits of Mind and an American
Enlightenment, American Quarterly, Summer 1976, . 161.
17. Stourzh, Alexander Hamilton, 71, 98.
18 Adams to Rush, 21 September 1808, : The Selected Writings of
John and John Quincy Adams, ed. Adnenne Koch and William
Peden (New York, 1964), 149-150.
19. Thomas Jefferson, Notes on Virginia, . Writings, ed. Merrill
D. Peterson (Library of America, 1984), 289.
20 Kentucky Resolutions of 1798, IX.
21 Wirt to Benjamin Edwards, 22 December 1809, Memoirs of the
Life of William Wirt, ed. J.P Kennedy (New York, 1849), I, 246-
247.
22 Second Treatise on Civil Government, ch.II, par. 49.
23. Antonelh Gerbi, The Dispute of the New World: The History of a
Polemic, 1750-1900 (Pittsburgh, 1973), 160-175.
24. Henry Steele Commager, Jefferson, Nationalism and the
Enlightenment (New York, 1975), 43.
25. Jefferson to Chastellux, 7 June 1785, : Jefferson, Wntmgs, 800.
26. Henry Steele Commager and Elmo Giodanetti, Was America a
644


Mistake? The Eighteenth-Century Controversy (New York, 1967),
126. 129, 138, 16.
27. Gerbi, Dispute, 240-242.
28. The llth Federalist.
: de Pauw, Recherches Philosophiques sur les
Amencams.
29. John Adams, Defence, Preface.
30. The 6th Federalist.
31. James Bryce, The American Commonwealth (New York, 1888),
I, 299.
32. Woodrow Wilson, Constitutional Government in the United States
(New York, 1908), 44-45.
33. Henry Adams, The Session 1869-1870", : The Great Secession
Winter of 1860-61 and Other Essays, ed. G.E.Hochfield (New
York, 1963), 193.
34. Diggins, Lost Soul of American Politics, 58.
35 J.D.Richardson, ., Messages and Papers of the Presidents.
(Washington, 1909), I, 579; II, 262; III, 295-296, 303.
36. Ibid., Ill, 483-484; IV, 532-533, 632; V, 9
37 Abraham Lincoln, Collected Works, ed R P.Easier (New
Brunswick, N.J., 1953), I, 113-115; VII, 17.
38. John Dillenberger, ed , John Calvin: Selections from His
Writings (New York, 1971), 350, 564.
39 Jonathan Edwards, A History of the Work of Redemption, Section
III, I.
40 Sacvan Bercovitch, The Puritan Origins of the American Self
(New Haven, 1975), 41-42, 54-55.
41. Miller and Johnson, Puritans, 1, 145, 152, 199.
42. The Scarlet Letter, ch.XXIII.
43. Jonathan Edwards, Thoughts Concerning the Present Revival of
Religion in New England, Part 2, section II.
44. -
, : Bercovitch,
Puritan Origins, 89-90, 100-104.
45. Charles Summer, Prophetic Voices Concerning America (Boston,
1874), 54-55. .. .
Wood, Creation of the American Republic, 571.
46. E.L.Tuveson, Redeemer Nation: The Idea of America's Millenial
Role (Chicago, 1969).
47. A.K.Wemberg, Manifest Destiny (1935; Quadrangle reprint,
1963). 40.
48. Bercovitch, Puritan Origins, 87-88.
49. Gilbert Chmard, Thomas Jefferson: The Apostle of Americanism
(1929; Ann Arbor reprint, 1957), 428.
50. Commager, Enlightenment, 188.
51. White-Jacket, ch. 36.
52. H.Richard Niebuhr, The Kingdom of God in America (1935;
Torchbook reprint, 1959), 157.
645


53. Josiah Strong, The New Era (New York. 1893), 71, 354.
54. . : Chicago Standard, 6 August 1898, : J.W.Pratt,
Expansionists of 1898 (1935; Quadrangle reprint, 1964), 293.
55. . : Norman A.Graebner, ed., Ideas and Diplomacy (New York,
1964), 372-373.
56. , -, -, -
, . : Wilson, Messages and Papers, ed. Albert
Shaw (New York, 1924), 2: 815, 822, 969, 1025, 1086.
57. Lyndon Johnson, Public Papers (Washington, 1963), I (1965),
180.
58. Thanksgiving Day Proclamation, 1982. -
. ., : New York
Times, 1 April 1976.
59. White-Jacket, ch. 36.
60. : R.W.B.Lewis, The American Adam (Chicago,
1955), 159.
61. Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address; Lincoln to Weed, 15 March
1865, : Works, YIII, 333.
62. Democratic Vistas, : Complete Poetry and Collected Prose
(Library of America), 930.
63. The Fortune of the Republic.
64. Henry Adams, History of the United States During the
Administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison (New
York, 1889-1891), IY, 289.
65. Henry Adams, Democracy (1880), ch 4.
66. The Rule of Phase Applied to History, : Henry Adams, The
Tendency of History (New York, 1919), 172.
67. Henry to Brooks Adams, 23 November 1900 and 7 May 1901,
: Henry Adams and His Friends: A Collection of His
Unpublished Letters, ed. H.D.Cater (Boston, 1947), 502, 508.
68. Henry Adams to H.O.Taylor, 22 November 1909; to
C.M.Gaskell, 1 June 1914; to Ferns Greenslet, after 22 December
1915, : The Letters of Henry Adams, 1892-1918, ed. W.C.Ford
(Boston, 1938), 526, 625, 635; : The Education of
Henry Adams (Boston, 1918), ch. XXXIY.
69. F.O.Matthiessen, The James Family (New York, 1961), 624-627,
631.
70. Remhold Niebuhr, Faith and History (New York, 1949), 31.
7 1. Remhold Niebuhr, The Irony of American History (New York,
1952), 4, 42, 69-70, 85, 173.
72. Franclm D.Roosevelt, Public Papers... 1928-1932 (New York,
1938), 646.
73. John F.Kennedy, Public Papers... 1961 (Washington, 1962), 19.
74. Speech at Springfield, 111., 26 June 1857, : Works, II, 406.
75. Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma (New York, 1944), 4.
76. Charles Dickens, Martin Chuzzlewit, ch. 34.
77. F.Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, ch. 9.

2.
:
The Shape of National Politics to Come (New York, 1959) (-
); Is Liberalism Dead? New York Times Magazine, 30
March 1980; The New Conservatism: Will It Last? Family Weekly,
10 January 1982; One Last Chance for the Democrats Playboy,
November 1982.
1. Emerson. The Conservative.
2. Henry Adams, History of the Unined States of America During
the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
(New York. 1889-1891), VI, 123.
3. Arthur M.Schlesmger, Paths to the Present (New York, 1949), 93.
4. Ibid., 96.
5. Ibid., 98.
6. Ibid., 97.
7 Emerson, The Conservative.
8. A.O.Hirschman, Shifting Involvements. Private Interest and
Public Action (Prmceton, 1982), 3, 8.
9 Herbert McClosky and John aller, The American Ethos: Public
Attitudes Toward Capitalism and Democracy (Cambridge, Mass.,
1984), . 162, 291-292.
10 :
John P Diggins, The Lost Soul of American Politics: Virtue, Self-
interest, and the Foundations of Liberalism (New York, 1984).
11. Walter B.Cannon, The Way of an Investigator (New York, 1945),
115.
12 Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Modern Library ed.), 324-
325.
13. Hirschman, Shifting Involements, 11.
14. Emerson, Fate.
15. The Education of Henry Adams (Boston, 1918), ch.XXI.
16. Slexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, II, First Book,
ch.XIII.
17. J.S.Mill. A System of Logic, Book VI, ch.X, 3.
18. Ortega Gasset, The Concept of the Generation, The Modern
Theme (New York, 1961), 14-15.
19 Ibid., 15; Karl Mannheim, The Problem of Generations, :
Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge (London, 1952), 290.
20. .: Julian
Marias, Generations: A Histoncal Method (University, Ala.,
1967), ch.3; . : Mannheim, Essays, 277; A.B.Spitzer,
The Historical Problem of Generations, American Historical
Review, December 1973.
21. R.G.CoIlingwood, Essays in the Philosophy of History (Austin,
1965), 75, 89.
22. Arthur M.Schlesmger, Jr., The Crisis of the Old Order (Boston,
1957), 366.
647


23. H.L.Mencken, In Praise of Gamaliel, Baltimore Sun, 18
October 1920.
24. Samuel Hopkins Adams, Incredible Era: The Life and Times of
Warren Gamaliel Hardmg (Boston, 1939), 117.
25. Walter Lippmann, Today and Tomorrow, New York Herald
Tribune, 5 January 1954.
26. Samuel Lubell, The Future of American Politics (New York,
1952), 200, 203.
27. Kevin Phillips, Hubris on the Right, New York Times
Magazine, 12 May 1985.
28. .: D.M.Gordon, Richard Edwards and Michael Reich,
Segmented Work, Divided Workers: The Historical
Transformation of Labor m the United States (Cambridge,
England, 1982). 1984 .
; The Pulse of Capitalism, Atlantic
Monthly, September 1984.
29. Newt Gingnch, open letter to David Stockman, Washington Post
Weekly, 26 November 1984.
30. Schlesmger, Crisis of the Old Order, 113-114.
31. The Politics of Nostalgia, Reporter, 16 June 1955, -
: Arthur M.Schlesmger, Jr., The Politics of Hope (Boston,
1962), 72 ff.
32. Tocqueville, Democracy m America, II, Second Book, ch.II, IV
33. Ibid., Third Book, ch.XVII; Second book, ch.X.
34. William J.Broad, Space Arms Scientists m U.S. Selling Rights
to Discoveries, New York Times, 4 Novtmber 1985.
35. Theodore Roosevelt to Sir Edward Grey, 15 November 1913, :
Roosevelt, Works. Memorial ed., XXIV, 409.
36. -
-
: Robert Dunn, Fiction
That Shrinks from Life, New York Times Book Review, 30 June
1985.
37 Democracy m America, II, Third Book. ch.XXI.
38 Ibid., Second Book, ch.XIV, IV
39 Ibid., ch.IV.
40. Ibid., I, ch.XIV.
41. Ibid.. II, Second Book, ch.XIV.
42. Frank L.Klmgberg, The Historical Alternation of Moods m
American Foreign Policy, World Politics, January 1952;
: Cyclical Trends in American Foreign
Policy Moods and Their Policy Implications, : Challenges to
America: U.S. Foreign Policy in the 1980s, ed. W.Kegley, Jr.,
and P.J.McGowan (vol.4, Sage International Yearbook of Foreign
Policy Studies, 1979); Cyclical Trends m American Foreign
Policy Moods: The Unfolding of America's World Role (Lanham,
Md., 1983).
43. .: The Election and After,
.-., -
648


, .-.,
New York Review of Books, 16 August 1984; Walter Dean
Bumham, American Politics in the 1980s, Dissent, Spring
1980, 159.
44. McClosky and aller, American Ethos, 292-302.
45. Emerson, Politics, The Conservative.
46. Emerson, The Conservative.

3.
-
1983 ., : Foreign
Affairs, Fall 1983.
1. Henry James, Letters, ed. Percy Lubbock (New York, 1920), I, 13.
2. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, II, First Book, ch.I.
3. Ibid., ch.XVIII.
4. Washington to Henry Lawrens, 14 November 1778, : Writings,
ed. J.C.Fitzpatrick (Washington, 1936), XIII, 256.
5. John Adams to James Warren, 20 March 1783, : James
H.Hutson, Intellectual Foundations of Early American
Diplomacy, Diplomatic History, Winter 1977, 13.
6. Norman A. Graebner, ed., Ideas and Diplomacy (New York,
1964), 11-12.
7. Ibid., 93, 122-123.
8. Fourth of July Address, 1821.
9. Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life (New York, 1909),
306.
10. Woodrow Wilson, Messages and Papers, ed. Albert Shaw (New
York, 1924), II, 777.
11. Speech at Orlando, Fla., 8 March 1983.
12. Press conference, 29 January 1981.
13. Wall Street Journal, 13 June 1980.
14. Henry Kissinger, White House Years (Boston, 1979), 522.
15. New York Times, 30 December 1984.
16. Richard H.Rovere and Arthur M.Schlesinger, Jr., The General
and the President (New York, 1951), 234.
17. Address to joint session of Congress, 27 April 1983.
18. Ibid.
19. Lord Salisbury to Lord Lytton, 15 June 1877.
20. Norman Cousins, The Improbable Triumvirate (New York,
1972), 114.
21. Address to the UN General Assembly, 25 September 1961.
22. Winston S.Churchill, The Gathering Storm (Boston. 1948), 320.
23. Robert S.McNamara and Hans A.Bethe, Reducing the Risk of
Nuclear War, Atlantic Monthly, July 1985, 50.
649


4.

.
,
( ) The Necessary Amorahty of Foreign Affairs,
: Harper's, August 1971, : Ernest
W.Lefever, ed., Ethics and World Politics: Four Perspectives
(Baltimore, 1972).
-
, '
In the National Interest, Worldiew, December 1984.
1. Robert F.Kennedy, Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile
Crisis (New York, 1971 ed.), 106.
2. New York Times, 8 October 1984.
3. George Kennan, Foreign Policy and Christian Conscience,
Atlantic Monthly, May 1959. .
: Morality and
Foreign Policy, Foreign Affairs, Winter 1985/86
4. Address to Congress, 3 April 1917.
5. John Foster Dulles, A Righteous Faith for a Just and Durable
Peace (New York, Federal Council of Churches, 1942), 10
6. Alexander Hamilton, Pacificus, No 4, 10 July 1793.
7. Reinhold Niebuhr, Moral Man and Immoral Society (New York,
1932), pp.XI, 258, 267.
8 Wmston Churchill, The Gathering Storm (Boston, 1948), 320
,
, , ,
-
,
9 Max Weber, Politics as a Vocation, - From Max Weber: Essays
in Sosiology, ed. H.H.Gerth and Wright Mills (New York,
1958), 120.
10. Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams (Boston, 1918),
ch.XXII.
11. New York Times, 7 July 1965.
12. Herbert Butterfield, History and Human Relations (London,
1951), 109-110.
13. : Gordon A Craig and Alexander L George, Force
and Statecraft (New York, 1983), 264
14 [Finley Peter Dunne], Mr. Dooley's Philosophy (New York,
1900), 258.
15. Washington to John Bannister, 21 April 1778, 1 S Morgan,
The Genius of George Washington (New York, 1980), 50-54.
16 Speech of 27 July 1965
17. Hamilton, Pacificus, No. 4.
18. G.M.Young, Victorian England: Portrait of an Age (Oxford, 1953
ed.), 103.
19. Adams, Education, ch.X.
650


20. Ibid., ch.XVIH.
21. Ibid., ch.XXIV.
22. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, I, ch.XIII.
23. A.J.P.Taylor, burope: Grandeur and Decline (London, Penguin,
1967), 357.
24. Theodore Roosevelt, sixth annual message, 3 December 1906.
25. John C.Bennet, Moral Tensions in International Affairs, :
Moral Dimensions in American Foreign Policy, ed.
K.W.Thompson (New Brunswick, N.J., 1984), 184.
26. Joel Porte, ed., Emerson in His Journals (Cambridge, Mass.,
1982), 358.
27. William Graham Sumner, The Conquest of the United States by
Spain and Other Essays, ed. Murray Polner (Chicago, n.d.), 173
28 Mark Twain, To the Person Sitting in Darkness, North
American Review, February 1901.
29 : Colm Bingham, ed., Men and Affairs (Sydney,
1967), 69.
30. Daniel Webster, The Revolution in Greece, : House of Repre-
sentatives, 19 January 1824.
31. .: R.W.Johnson, Making Things
Happen, London Review of Books, 6-19 September 1984,
H.S.Ferns, This Spy Business, Encounter, May 1985.
32. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, The Role of Law in World Affairs,
Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences,
November 1983.
33. Arthur M.Schlesinger, Jr, Robert Kennedy and His Times
(Boston, 1978), 508-509.
34. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Loyalties (New York, 1984), 94.
35 Ronald Reagan, press conference, 19 October 1983; State of the
Union address, 6 February 1985.

36. Walter Lippmann, Today and Tomorrow, New York Herald
Tribune, 9 May 1961.

5.
: Foreign Affairs, America and the World
1978",
.
1. .: Edward Peters, Torture (New York, 1985).
2 Idler, : Irvin Ehrenpreis, Human
Wishes, London Review of Books, 20 December 1984.
3. John Qumcy Adams, Fourth of July address, 1821.
4. Albert Gallatm, Peace with Mexico (New York, 1847), sect.VII.
5. Kossuth's speech at Concord, 11 May 1852, Old South Leaflets,
No.lll.p.15.
6. Congressional Globe. 31st Cong., 2d Sess., 7 January 1850, 113-
651


116. -
.
7. Ulysses S. Grant, first annual message, 6 Decrmber 1869.
8. , -
1891 . .: Congressional
Record, 51st Cong., 2d Sess., 14 February 1891, 141.
9. John Basset Moore, A Digest of International Law (Washington,
1906), VI, 360-361.
10. John F.Kennedy, Public Papers... 1961 (Washington, 1962), 1;
Public Papers... 1963 (Washington, 1964), 232, 697.
11. Section 116 (a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as
amended in 1974.
12. . : Patrick Breslin, Human
Rights: Rhetoric or Action?, Washington Post, 17 February
1977.
13. E.P.Spiro, A Paradigm Shift in American Foreign Policy,
Worldview, January-February 1977.
14. Jimmy Carter, Why Not the Best? (New York. 1976), 140-141.
15. Jimmy Carter, Keeping Faith (New York, 1982), 144.
16. David Owen, Human Rights (New York, 1978), 2.
17. Address at the University of Georgia Law School, 20 April 1977.
18. Trying to Right the Balance, Time, 9 October 1978.
19. : Harvard Commencement speech; Harvard Gazette, 8 June
1978.
20. Interview with Arbatov by Jonathan Power, Observer (London),
12 Novemder 1978.
21. New York Times, 26 June 1977.
22. Interview with Valery Giscard d'Estamg by Arnaud de
Borchgrave, Newsweek, 25 July 1977.
23. Fereydoun Hoveyda, Not All Clocks for Human Rights Are the
Same, New York Times, 18 May 1977.
24. George F.Kennan, The Cloud of Danger: Current Realities of
American Foreign Policy (Boston, 1977), 43.
25. Elizabeth Drew, Human Rights, New Yorker, 18 July 1977.
26. Nathaniel Hawthorne, Our Old Home (1863), : Works
(Riverside ed.), VII, 49.
27. Ferdinand Mount, Human Rights, Encounter, December 1980.
28. Marion Dbnhoff, Weltpohtik mil Fanfarenstossen, Die eit, 4
March 1977.
29. Patricia Derian, A Commitment Sustained, Worldview, July-
August 1978.
30. Raul S.Manglapus, Human Rights Are Not a Western
Discovery, Worldview, October 1978.
31. Fox Butterfield, Peking's Poster Warriors Are Not Just Paper
Tigers, New York Times, 26 Novemder 1978.
32. Peking Wall Poster Plea to Carter, New York Post, 13 December
1978.
652


33. John F.Burns, Writer's Congress in China Demands Artistic
Freedom, New York Times, 1 January 1985.
34. Carter, Keeping Faith, 578.
35. , 21 1984 .
36. Reagan, message to Congress, 14 March 1986.
37. A.D.Sakharov, The Human Rights Movement m the USSR and
Eastern Europe, Trialogue, Fall 1978.
38. Mount, Human Rights.
39. Mihajlo Mihajlov, Notes of a Survivor, New Leader, 31 July
1978.
40. Dissent in Exile Andrei Amalrik Talks to Michael Charlton,
Listener. 14 October 1976.
41. : Le Monde, : New York Review of
Books, 4 October 1973.
42. : The Times (London), 13 September 1973.
43. .: Hurst Hannum, ed., Guide to
International Human Rights Practice (Philadelphia, 1984); David
P.Forsythe, The United Nations and Human Rights, 1945-
1985", Political Science Quarterly, Summer 1985.

6.
The
Solzhenitsyn We Refuse to See : Washington Post, 25 June 1978,
: Ronald Berman, ed., Solzhenitsyn at Harvard
(Washington, 1979).
7.
The Missionary
Enterprise and Theories of Imperialism : The Missionary Enterprise
in China and America, ed. John K.Fairbank (Cambridge, Mass.,
1974); : William Appleman Williams,
The Roots of the Modern American Empire, : Partisan Review, No. 4,
1970 ( : Partisan Review, No. 1,
1971); : New York Review of Books, 20 March
1980.
1. Richard Koebner and H.D.Schmidt, Imperialism: The Story and
Significance of a Political Word, 1840-1960 (Cambridge,
England, 1964), ch.I.
2. B: Bagehot's Historical Essays, ed. Norman St. John-Stevas (New
York, 1966), 447-452.
3. Joseph A.Schumpeter, The Sociology of Imperialisms, :
Imperialism and Social Classes (New York, 1951), 5.
4. Churchill to Roosevelt, 21 May 1944, : Churchill and Roosevelt:
The Complete Correspondence, ed. W.F.Kimball (Princeton,
1984), III, 140.
5. ., . , 2- , .9, . 136, 225.
6. ., . ., .6, .292; .4, .468; .37, .74;
.35, .297.
653


7. Valeric Pakenham, The Noonday Sun (London, 1985), 10.
8. Charles A.Conant, The Economic Basis of Imperialism, North
American Review, September 1898, : Conant, The United States
m the Orient (Boston, 1900), 3, 9, 29.
9. .. , .27, .379.
10. Andre Gunder Frank, Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin
America (New York, 1967), 9.
11. ., . ., .23, .759.
12. ., . ., .37, .74.
13. Gunnar Myrdal, Asian Drama: An Inquiry into the Poverty of
Nations (abr. ed., New York, 1971), 111-112.
14. APRA Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana
( - ).
: An interview with Victor Alba, New Leader, 26 April
1954.
15. J.K.Galbraith, The Nature of Mass Poverty (Cambridge, Mass.,
1979), 91. , ,
. : Joan Robinson, Economic Philosophy (Garden City, N.Y.,
1964), 45.
16. .: Conor Cruise O'Brien, Contemporary Forms of
Imperialism, : Readings in U.S. Imperialism, ed. K.T.Fann and
D.C.Hodges (Boston, 1971), 7, c: O'Brien, The Fall of Africa,
New Republic, 18 March 1985.
17. Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (London, 1967), 83.
18. E.H.Carr, The Bolshevic Revolution, 1917 1923 (London,
1961), III, 61, : Tony Smith, The Pattern of
Imperialism (Cambridge, England, 1981), 210.
19. Myrdal, Asian Drama, 109, 442-443.
20. Galbraith, Nature of Mass Poverty, 46.
21. Ibid., 89.
22. A.J.P.Taylor, London Diary, New Statesman, 7 January 1956.
. Economic Imperialism : Englishmen and
Others (London, 1956), 76-80.
23. : W.L.Langer Farewell to Empire, Foreign
Affairs, October 1962, 118.
24. Schumpeter, Imperialism, 18, 25, 65.
25. Max Weber, Structures of Power, : From Max Weber: Essays
m Sociology, ed. H.H.Gerth and C.Wnght Mills (New York,
1946), 169.
26. D.K.Fieldhouse, "Imperialism": An Historiographical
Revision, Economic History Review, December 1961, 204.
27. W.L.Langer, Farewell to Empire, Foreign Affairs, October
1962, 120; Langer, A Critique of Imperialism, Foreign Affairs,
October 1935, 113.
28. From Max Weber, 164.
29. Ronald Robinson, John Gallagher and Alice Denny, Africa and
the Victorians: The Climax of Imperialism (London, 1968), 472.
30. AJ.P.Taylor, Englishmen and Others, 79.
654


31. A.K.Wemberg, Manifest Destiny: A Study of Nationalist
Expansionism in American History (Baltimore, 1935).
32. American Historical Review, June 1978.
33. R.W.Van Alstyne, The Rising American Empire (New York,
1960), 1, 9.
34. Interview with W.A.Williams, : Henry Abelove et al., eds ,
Visions of History (New York, 1984), 139.
35. William Appleman Williams, The Tragedy of American
Diplomacy (2nd rev. and enlarged ed , New York, 1972), 15
36. Walter LaFeber, The New Empire (Ithaca, 1963), 7.
37. : J.H.Hutson, Intellectual Foundations of Early
American Diplomacy, Diplomatic History, Winter 1977, 6, 8,
10.
38 A.O.Hirschman, Rival Interpretations of Market Society,
Journal of Economic Literature, December 1982, 1464.
39. Jefferson, Report of the Secretary of State on the Privileges and
Restrictions on the Commerce of the United States in Foreign
Countries, 16 December 1793, : The Record of American
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54. Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970
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65 Williams, Roots, 146-147.
66. Ibid., 379.
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280.
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69. :
LaFeber, The New Empire, . : Paul S.Holbo, A View of The
New Empire, , -
16 1971 .
70 D.W.Brogan, The American Character (1956; Time Inc.
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76 Williams, Roots, 32
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Principles of Military Operations on Land, : Mahan on Naval
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79. Williams, Roots, 150, 326-327.
656


80. New York, 1974.
81. Henry Cabot Lodge, Our Blundering Foreign Policy, Forum,
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83. Williams, America II, 73.
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85. Lodge, Our Blundering Foreign Policy, 15.
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90 Young, American Expansion, 186.
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99. Williams, Tragedy, 164, 165, 173, 190.
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101. Fidel Castro, There Must Be an Economic War of All the People,
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657

103. Van Alstyne, Rising American Empire, 93; Wemberg, Manifest
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104. Frederick Merk, Albert Gallatin and the Oregon Problem
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127. . : Ronald Robinson, Non-European
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Collaboration, : Studies in the Theory of Imperialism, ed. Roger
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W.R.Louis (New York, 1976); : D.K.Fieldhouse,
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1967, Origins of the Cold War.
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: The Cold War Revisited, New York Review of Books, 25 October
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659

Victory: Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin and the Making of the Peace
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13 Lundestad, American Non-Policy, 40-41, 43, 317-318, 416, 4 19-
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14 James F.Byrnes, Neighboring Nations in One World,
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660

25. Remarks of Ambassador A.F.Dobrynm, Congressional Record,
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.
32 Daniel Yergm, Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War and
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34 John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment: A Critical
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35 Herbert E.Meyer, A Trendy Cold War Fairy Tale, Fortune,
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36 Daniel F.Hamngton, Kennan, Bohlen, and the Riga Axioms,
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44. . . ,
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53. Ibid., 241.
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58. Ibid., 311.
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61 Anderson, The United States, Great Britain, and the Cold War,
209, 211.

62. Rothwell, Britain and the Cold War, 454-455.
63 Robert G.Kaiser, Cold Winter, Cold War (New York, 1974), 177


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Economic Process Seymour E.Harris, American Economic
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2 John C.Miller, Alexander Hamilton: Portrait in Paradox (New
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14 Oscar and Mary F.Handlm, Commonwealth, A Stady of the Role
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Policy of the Government of the United States (New York, 1950),
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26. cm. J.Willard Hurst, The Legitimacy of the Bussiness
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74. D.P.Moynihan, How Has the United States Met Its Major
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86 Gary Hart, A New Democracy (New York, 1983), 26
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ࠠ 10.

: Can the System
Be Saved? Encounter, January 1983, The Crisis
of the American Party System : Political Parties and the Modern
State, ed. Richard L.McCormick (New Brunswick, N.J , 1984), -
: Crisis of the Party System, Wall Street Journal, 10 May, 14 May
1979 Can the Party System Be Saved? The American
Constitutional System under Strong and Weak Parties, ed. Patricia
Bonomi, James MacGregor Burns and Austin Ranney (New York,
1981).
1. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy m America, I, ch.XIV.
2. James Bryce, The American Commonwealth (New York, 1888), I,
5-6.
3. David Glass, Peverill Squire and Raymond Wolfmger, Voter
Turnout: An International Comparison, Public Opinion,
December/January 1984.
4. Rousseau, The Social Contract, Book II, ch.III.
666

5. Hume, Of Parties in General, Essays: Moral, Political and
Liberary (World's Classics, 1903), 55.
6. Jefferson to Francis Hopkinson, 13 March 1789, Thomas
Jefferson (Library of America, 1984), 941.
7. Franklin D.Roosevelt, Public Paper and Addresses (New York,
1938), I, 628.
8. Henry Jones Ford, The Rise and Growth of American Politics
(New York, 1898), 203.
9. Ford, Rise and Growth, 306.
10. Thoreau, Life Without Principle, Miscellanies (Boston, 1893),
286.
11. The Autobiography of Lincoln Steffens (New York, 1931), 618.
-
. Robert K.Merton, Manifest and Latent
Functions, : On Theoretical Sociology (New York, 1967), -
126-136.
12. Tocqueville, Democracy in America, I, ch XIV.
13. Bryce, The American Commonwealth, II, 20.
14. Henry F.Prmgle, Theodore Roosevelt (New York, 1931), 89.
15. William A.Robinson, Thomas Reed Parliamentarian (New
York, 1930), 379.
16 Henry Adams, Democracy (1880), ch.4.
17. Samuel Lubell, The Hidden Crisis in American Politics (New
York, 1970), 49.
18. The 10th Federalist.
19. Edward M.Stanwood, A History of the Presidency (Boston, 1898),
260.
20. Woodrow Wilson, Congressional Government (Boston, 1 885), 92,
98-99.
21. Tocqueville, Democracy m America, II, First Book, ch.XXI.
22. Janet Smith, ed., Mark Twain on the Damned Human Race (New
York, 1962), 105.
23. Tocqueville, Democracy in America, I, ch.X.
24. Henry Adams, The Great Secession Winter of 1860-61 and Other
Essays, ed. George E.Hochfield (New York, 1963), 279.
25. Arthur M.Schlesmger, Paths to the Present (New York, 1949), 95,
91.
26. Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams (Boston, 1918),
ch.XVIII.
27. Bryce, American Commonwealth, I, 75.
28. Smith, ed., Mark Twain, 105.
29. Whitman, Democratic Vistas, Complete Poetry and Collected
Prose (Library of America), 965-966.
30. Herbert Croly, Progressive Democracy (New York, 1914), 324,
349.
31. Calvin Coohdge, Autobiography (New York, 1929), 230.
667

32. Franklin D.Roosevelt, Public Papers and Addresses... 1940 (New
York, 1941), 28.
33. : What
Price PACs? Report of the Twentieth Century Task Force on
Political Action Committees (New York, 1984) -
David Shribman and Brooks Jackson : The Wall
Street Journal, 22 November 1985.
34. Harold Macmillan, The Past Masters (London, 1975), 107. cm.
: Joshua Meyrowitz, No
Sense of Place: The Impact of Electronic Media on Social
Behavior (New York, 1984), ch. 14.
35. Clayton Fritchey Out, Damn Spots, Los
Angeles Times Syndicate, 31 March 1976.
36. Newton Minow in a speech to the Association of
American Low Schools, 5 January 1985,
Congressional Record (daily ed.), 20 February 1985, E 492.
37. A.Lowrence Lowell, Public Opinion and Popular Government
(New York, 1913), ch.V.
38. Patricia Bonomi, James MacGregor Burns and Austin Ranney,
eds., The American Constitutional System under Strong and
Weak Parties (New York, 1981), 137.
39. -
, , . :
Ralph Ketcham, Presidents above Party: The First American
Presidency, 1789-1829 (Chapel Hill, 1984).
40. Bryce, American Commonwealth, I, 660.

41. Adams, Education, ch.XVIII.

ࠠ 11.
The Imperial Presidency
(New York: Popular Library, 1974) Parliamentary Government,
New Republic, 31 August 1974, , -
: Wall Street Journal, The Electoral College
Conundrum (4 April 1977), Reforming the American Presidency (7
April 1981), Time for Constitutional Change? (24 December 1982),
Making Reagan Accountable (20 April 1984) Why Ex-Presidents
Should Stay That Way, Parade, 21 June 1981; The Item Veto Is a
Bad Idea, Chicago Tribune, 2 April 1984; Against a One-Term, Six-
Year President, New York Times, 10 January 1986.
1. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, I, ch. VIII.
2. Madison to Jefferson, 13 May 1798, : The Complete Madison:
His Basic Writings, ed. Saul K.Padover (New York, 1953), p. 258.
3. Abraham D.Sofaer, War, Foreign Affairs and Constitutional
Power: The Origins (Cambridge, Mass., 1976), 225-227, 265,
377-379. Henry
Bartholomew Cox, War, Foreign Affairs and Constitutional Power,
1829 1901 (Cambridge, Mass., 1984).
4. Calhoun in the Senate, 4 January 1848, . : Frederick Merk,
668

Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History (New York,
1963), 163.
5. Louis J.Jennings, Eighty Years of Republican Government m the
United States (London, 1868). 36.
6. James Bryce, The American Commonwealth (1888), I. ch.VI.
7. Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams (Boston, 1918),
ch.XXVIII.
8. Woodrow Wilson, Congressional Government (15th ed.; Boston,
1901), p. XI-XII.
9. W.L.Langer and S.E.Gleason, The Challenge to Isolation (New
York, 1952), 539.
10. Richard M.Nixon, Memoirs (New York, 1978), p. 763.
11. . : Philip Hone, Diary... 1828 1851, ed. Allan Nevms
(New York. 1927), II, 686-687.
12. Thomas E.Cronm, A Resurgent Congress and the Imperial
Presidency, Political Science Quarterly, Summer 1980, 210.
13. Charles L.Black, Jr., Mr. Nixon, the Tapes and Common Sense,
New York Times, 3 August 1973.
14. Theodore Lowi, The Personal President (Ithaca, 1985), 151.
15. T.D.Schellhardt, Do We Expect Too Much? Wall Street Journal,
10 July 1979.
16. Robert Shogan, None of the Above (New York, 1982), 3-4.
17. Godfrey Hodgson, All Things to All Men- The False Promise of
the Modern American Presidency (1980; Touchstone paperback,
1981), 49.
18. Ibid., 13.
19. Hugh Heclo, The Presidential Illusion, : The Illusion of
Presidential Government, ed. Heclo and L M Salamon (Boulder,
Colo, 1981), 1.
20. Gerald R.Ford, Imperiled, Not Imperial, Time, 10 November
1980.
21. Jonathan Daniels, Frontier on the Potomac (New York, 1946), 31
22. Richard Neustadt, Presidential Power' The Politics of Leadership
(1960; rev. ed., New York, 1976), 77, I.
23. Woodrow Wilson, Constitutional Government in the United States
(New York, 1908), 68, 73.
24. Tocqueville, Democracy in America, II, Fourth Book, ch.VI
25. Pierce Butler of South Carolina; D.S.Freeman, George
Washington (New York, 1954), YI, 117.
26. Carry Wills, Cmcmnatus: George Washington and
Enlightenment (Garden City, N.Y., 1984), p. 47, 103; Freeman,
Washington, YI, 86. -
: -
. Oxford History of
the American People (New York, 1965), p. 318.
27. Robert .Remini, Andrew Jackson and the Course of American
Democracy, 1833 1845 (New York, 1984), ch.5.
28. Charles Dickens, American Notes, ch.XVIII.
669

29. James K.Polk, Diary, ed. M.M.Quaife (Chicago, 1910), II, 28.
30. Benjamin Harreson, This Country of Ours (New York, 1897),
163-164, 180.
31. William Howard Taft, The Presidency (New York, 1916), 47-48,
50.
32. Senator Robert Griffin of Michigan, . : James L.Sundquist,
The Decline and Resurgence of Congress (Washington, 1981),
292.
33. New York Times. 2 September 1976.
34. : Conference Report,
Congressional Record, 4 October 1973, H8657 (daily ed.),
Statement of War Powers Conferees, 4 October 1973, -
, 2.
35. Eagleton, War and
Presidential Power: A Chronicle of Congressional Surrender
(New York, 1974).
36. Congressional Record, 7 November 1973, H9661 (daily ed.)
37. Letter m Washington Post, 6 December 1973.
38. Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha, 103 S Ct
2764 (1983).
39. Howard E.Shuman, Politics and the Budget. The Struggle Be-
tween the President and the Congress (Englewood Cliffs, N.J ,
1984), 246.
40. Henry Jones Ford, The Rise and Growth of American Politics
(New York, 1898), 284.
41. E.W.Emerson and W.E.Forbes, eds., Journals of Ralph Waldo
Emerson (Boston, 1909 1914), IY, 160.
42 Henry Adams, The Session, 1869 1870", : The Great
Secession Winter of 1860-61 and Other Essays, ed.
G.E.Hochfield (New York, 1958), 197.
43 : David Broder, Washington Post, 9 February 1984.
44 Lou Cannon, Dramatic Account of Film of Nazi Death Camps
Questioned, Washington Post, 5 March 1984.
45. Lars- Nelson : New York Daily News, 16, 28 December
1983, 11 January 1984.
46. Sofaer, War, Foreign Affairs and Constitutional Power, 377-379.
47. Resolution on the 1984 Annual Report of the Information
Security Oversight Office, adopted by the Council of the
American Historical Association, 27 December 1985.
48. Congressional Record, 18 June 1984 (daily ed.), H 6021.
Record, 20 June,
S 7694-7697.
49. James Bryce, Modern Democracies (New York, 1921), II, 371.
50. James Parton, Life of Andrew Jackson (Boston, 1860), III, 607.
51. John Taylor of Caroline, An Inquiry into the Principles and
Policy of the Government of the United States (1814; New Haven,
1950), 194.
52. -
670

1973 . -
, -
23
1973 .
53. Lloyd N.Cutler, To Form a Government, Foreign Affairs, Fall
1980.
54. Douglas Dillon, The Challenge of Modern Governance, b'
Reforming American Government: The Bicentennial Papers of the
Committee on the Constitutional System, ed. D.L.Robinson
(Boulder, Colo., 1985), 28-29.
55. After Two Centuries: Our Eighteenth Century Constitution m
Today's Complex World, Committee on the Constitutional
System Basic Policy Statement, 1 February 1983, 3.
56. Ford, Rise and Growth of American Politics, 59, 215.
57. Samuel Lubell, The Hidden Crisis m American Politics (New
York, 1970), 43.
58 Louis Hams, Reagan Wins Reelection, Loses Big for Republican
Congress, The Harris Survey, 8 November 1984
59. Don K.Price, The Parliamentary and Presidential Systems,
Public Administration Review, Autumn 1943, 320
60. Lord Hailsham, Elective Dictatorship, Listener, 21 October
1976.
61. David Owen, An Agenda for the New Year, Observer (London),
6 January 1985.
62. .
Cohen's 23 May 1974 Royer Lecture at the University of
California, Presidential Responsibility and American
Democracy, 13.
63. .: Philip Norton, The Norton View, : The Politics of
Parliamentary Reform, ed. David Judge (Cranbury, N J., 1984),
62-65; Norton, The Constitution m Flux (Oxford,
1982).
64. Allan Smdler, A Critique of the Reuss Proposal, : Robinson,
ed., Reforming American Government, 324.
65. Woodrow Wyatt, Turn Again, Westminster (London, 1973). -

.
66. Edward Pearce, London Commentary, Encounter, September-
October 1982, 36.
67. Crossman, Myths of Cabinet Government, 16.
68. Lord Hailsham, Wilson the Conservative, Listener, 28 October
1976.
69. House of Cards, Economist, 4 August 1984.
70 Wyatt, Turn Again, Westminster, 17, 28-31.
71. James Gillies, The Parliamentary Imperative, Saturday Night,
June 1984, 55.
72. Malcolm Shaw, Reform of the American Congress, : Judge,
ed., Politics of Parliamentary Reform, 129.
73. Hailsham, Elective Dictatorship.
671

74. Wyatt, Turn Again, Westminster, 50.
75. Gillies, Parliamentary Imperative, 55.
76. Wyatt, Turn Again. Westminster, 57.
77. .: Chve Pontmg, The Right to Know: The Inside Story of the
Belgrano Affair (London, 1985), Tarn Dalyell, Pontmg Bites
Back, London Review of Books, 4 April 1985.
78. Cf. Samuel H.Beer, Britain Against Itself: The Political
Contradictions of Collectivism (New York, 1982), 189-192.
79. Buckley v. Valeo, 424 U.S. 1, 121 (1976).
80. Neustadt, Presidential Power, 101.
81. Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. 579,
635 (1952).
82. In Dallas, ., 12 June 1936; Franklin D.Roosevelt, Public
Papers... 1936 (New York, 1938), 215.
83. Bryce, The American Commonwealth, I, 147-148.
84. Harriman before the Subcommittee on Separation of Powers,
Senate Judiciary Committee, Executive Privilege: The
Withholding of Information by the Executive, 92d Cong., 1st
Sess. (1971), 360.
85. Griffin Bell, Herbert Brownell, William Simon and Cyrus Vance
( -
) For a One-Term, Six-Year
Presidency, New York Times, 31 December 1985
86 Jackson, second annual message, 6 December 1830
87. G.C.Tansill, ed., Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the
Union of the American States (Washington, 1927), 675, 396, 444
88. Senate Jydiciary Committee, Single Six-Year Term for President
Hearing, 92d Cong., 1st Sess. (1971), 63.
89. Tansill, Documents, 447.
90. Washington to Lafayette, 28 April 1788, . Washington,
Writings, ed. P.L.Ford (New York), 1891, XI, 257-258.
91. The 72nd Federalist.
92. Jefferson to John Taylor, 6 January 1805, Jefferson, Writings,
ed. Merrill D.Peterson (Library of America, 1984), 1153
93. Wilson to A.Mitchell Palmer, 5 February 1913, Single Six-Year
Term, p. 239-240. CILIA
- -
, ( , -
, , , , , -
, , , , , )
: -
,
? .: Sundquist,
Constitutional Reform and Effective Government (Washington,
1986), 129.
94. Congressional Record, 5 February 1985 (daily ed.), S 1004.
95. Mickey Edwards, A Conservative's Case Against the Line Item
Veto, Washington Post, 8 February 1984.
672

96 Wulham Howard Taft, Our Chief Magistrate and His Powers
(New York. 1916), 27-28.
97. Lochner v. New York. 198 U.S. 45. 75.
98. New York Times, 23 March 1977.
99. Andrew Jackson, first annual message, 8 December 1829.
100. Gray v. Sanders, 372 U.S. 368 (1963).

101. Neal R.Peirce, The People's President: The Electoral College m
American History and the Direct-Vote Alternative (New York,
1968), 152.
102. J.H.Yunker and L.D.Longley, The Electoral College: Its Biases
Newly Measured for the 1960s and 1970s (Beverly Hills, Calif ,
1976), 37.
103. .: The Library of Congress study by Joseph Gorman, The
Election of 1888"; Congressional Record, 13 June 1979, S 7604-
7615 (daily ed.).
104. Wilson to Robert Lansmg, 5 November 1916, The Pepers of
Woodrow Wilson, ed. Arthur Link, XXXYIII, 617-618. -

(493).
105. Crossman, Myths of Cabinet Government, XV-XVI
106. Calvin Coohdge, Autobiography (New York, 1929), 234, 194
107. Lincoln P.Bloomfield, What's Wrong with Transitions, Foreign
Policy, Summer 1984, 35
108. Grover Cleveland, address at Sandwich, Mass., 25 July 1891,
Letters and Addresses, ed. A.E Bergh (New York, 1909), 234
109. Henry F.Prmgle, The Life and Times of William Howard Taft
(New York, 1939), II, 845.
110 Millard Fillmore, Papers, ed. F H Severance (Buffalo, 1907), II,
139, . no A.B.Tourtellot's valuable compendium, The
Presidents on the Presidency (New York, 1964), 384
111. James Monroe, Writings, ed. S.M Hamilton (New York, 1898
1903), VII, 54, . no Tourtellot, Presidents, 378.
112 J.Q Adams, Memoirs, ed F Adams (Philadelphia, 1874
1877),'VIII, 245
1 13 Harry S Truman, Mr. Citizen (1960, Popular Library paperback,
), 78-79, 85, 91.
114. Bureau of the Budget Stuff Memorandum, Utilization of Former
Presidents, 3 April 1963, transmitted by William Carey to
Lawrence O'Brien, 8 April 1963, John F.Kennedy Library
115. John W.Chambers II, Transformation of the Ex-Presidency,
prospectus (1981), 2
116 Richard N.Nixon, The Peal War (New York, 1980), 243
117. Senator William V.Roth, Jr., Ex-presidential Perks Are Way out
of Hand, USA Today, 28 March 1984.
118. Prmgle, Taft, II, 845-846.
119. Ibid., 846.
120. Bryce, American Commonwealth, I, 349.
121. Tocqueville, Democracy, I, ch.xvi.
673

122. Youngston Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. 579 B34
(1952).
123. In his message to Congress, 4 July 1861.
124. George Reedy, The Twilight of the Presidency (New York, 1970),
9.
125. Walter F.Mondale, The Institution of the Vice Presidency ecture
at the University of Minnesota, 18 February 1981,
, 3.
126. In his letter to Bishop Mandell Creighton, 5 April 1887.
127. Adams, Education, ch.xxvni.
128. -
, Halpme's Baked Meats of the Funeral -
The Face of Lincoln, ed. James Mellon (New York,
1979).
129. Reedy, Twilight, 85.
130. Franklin D.Roosevelt, Public Papers... 1939 (New York, 1941),
492.
131. Greg Schneiders, Goodbye to All That, Newsweek, 24
September 1979.
132. Rosenman and Harriman m interviews with Emmet J.Hughes,
The Living Presidency (New York, 1973), 348, 362.
133. Hamilton to Gouverneur Morns, 27 February 1802, Hamilton,
Works ed. H.C.Lodge (New York, 1904), YII1, 591.
134. Adams, Education, ch.xvm.

135. . . . ..-.-
, ., 1986, . 412.

ࠠ 12. -

, Is the Vice Presidency
Necessary? Atlantic Monthly, May 1974 On the Presidential
Succession, Political Science Quarterly, Fall 1974 (
The Imperial Presidency).
1. John D.Feerick, From Failing Hands: The Story Of Presidential
Succession (New York, 1965), 66-67.
2. Finley Peter Dunne, The World of Mr. Dooley, ed. Louis Filler
(New York, 1962), 50-51.
3. C.C.Tansill, ed., Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the
Union of the American States (Washington, 1927), 479, 621, 680.
4. Ruth Silva, Presidential Succession (New York, 1968), 167-168
5. Tansill, ed., Documents, 682.
6. Ibid., 679, 454.
7. James Wilson, Works, ed. R.G.McCloskey (Cambridge, Mass.,
1957), I, 439.
8. Tansill, ed., Documents, 682.
9. Feerick, From Failing Hands, 52, 54.
674

10. Alexander Hamilton, Papers, ed. H.C.Syrett (New York, 1962),
V, 248.
11. Feerick, From Failing Hands, 66-67, 63.
12. Lucius Wilmerdmg, Jr., The Electoral College (Beacon
paperback, 1964), 33-34.
13. Michael Harwood, In the Shadow of Presidents (Philadelphia,
1966), 27.
14. Feerick, From Failing Hands, 73.
15. Henry Adams, History of the United States during the
Administration of Jefferson and Madison (New York, 1889), II,
133-134.
16. I.G.Wilhams, The Rise of the Vice Presidency (Washington,
1956). 81.
17. 1792 . Edward Stanwood, A
History of the Presidency (Boston, 1901), 36-38.
18. E.S.Corwin, ed., The Constitution of the United States of America
Analysis and Interpretation (Washington, 1953), 387.
19. -
-: Lucius Wilmerdmg, Jr., The
Presidential Succession, Atlantic Monthly, May 1947 The
Vice Presidency, Political Science Quarterly, March 1953.
20. E.S.Corwin, The President: Office and Powers (New York, 1957),
54.
21. Feerick, From Failing Hands, 74-75.
22. Ibid., 95, S.W.Stathis, John Tyler's Presidential Succession A
Reappraisal, Prologue, Winter 1976.
23. Feerick, From Failing Hands, 146.
24. 1886 . . Stanwood, History of the Presidency,
451-452.
25. Tansill, ed., Documents, 682.
26. James G.Blame, Twenty Years of Congress (Norwich, Conn.,
1884-1886), II, 57.
27. Jefferson to Elbridge Gerry, 13 May 1797, Jefferson, Writing, ed.
Merrill D.Peterson (Library of America, 1984), 1042.
28. Michael Harwood, In the Shadow of Presidents (Philadelphia,
1966), 153.
29. H.S.Truman, Year of Decisions (New York, 1955), 197;
D.D.Elsenhower, Waging Peace (New York, 1963), 6.
30. Blame, Twenty Years, II, 57.
31. T.R.Marshall, Recollections (Indianapolis, 1925), 368.
32. World of Mr. Dooley, 53. u
33. Dons Kearns, Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream (New
York, 1979), 164.
34. Tansill, ed., Documents, 682.
35. Williams. Rise, 109-110.
36. Ibid.. 134, 138.
675

37. Franklin D.Roosevelt, Can the Vice President Be Useful?
Saturday Evening Post, 16 October 1920.
38. W.O.Douglas, Go East, Young Man (New York, 1974), 310-311
39. Franklin D.Roosevelt, Public Papers. 1940 (New York, 1941),
623.
40. New York Times, 25 August 1960.
41. Paul B.Fay, Jr., The Pleasure of His Company (New York,
1966), 4.
42. Washington Star-News, 16 May 1974.
43. J.S.Magruder, An American Life (New York, 1974), 128.
44. Marshall, Recollections, 230.
45. -
: Joel K.Goldstem, The
Modern American Vice Presidency (Prmceton, 1982) Paul
C.Light, Vice-Presidential Power (Baltimore, 1984).
, . 7 1 -72. , , -
, --
, -

46 H.S.Truman, Special Message to Congress on the Succession to
the Presidency, 19 June 1945, Public Papers 1945
(Washington, 1961), 129.
47 Ibid., 130.
48 Congressional Record, 26 June 1947,
7854-7855 (daily ed.)
49 D.M.DeWitt, Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson (New
York, 1903), 411.
50 Henry Gonzalez's statement in the Texas Observer,
May 1965 4 June,
1985, Congressional Record, H 3802 (daily ed ).
51 Ex Parte Milligan, 4 Wall 2, 125 (1866).
52 Senate Judiciary Committee, Selected Materials on the Twenty-
Fifth Amendment, 67-68
53 Congressional Record, 15 November 1973, S 20429 (daily ed ).
54. Borch Bayh, Subcommittee on
Constitutional Amendments, Senate Judiciary Committee,
Examination of the First Implementation of Section Two of the
Twenty-Fifth Amendment: Hearing, 94th Cong , IstSess (1975),
19; Bayh, Statement... before the Senate Committee of Rules and
Administration Regarding the Nomination of the Hon. Gerald
Ford as Vice-President of the Llnited States [November 1973].
55 Tansill, ed., Documents, 392.
56. Examination of the First Implementation of Section Two, 124.
57. Light, Vice-Presidential Power, 63.
58. Rockefeller to Richard M.Rosenbaum, 18 January 1979.
59. Gnffm B.Bell, with R.J.Ostrow, Taking Care of the Law (New
York, 1982), 23; . New York Times, 7 April 1982.
60. Rockefeller to Rosenbaum, 18 January 1979.
676

61. Interview m Newsweek, 28 July 1980.
62. Marshall, Recollections, 16.
63. J.E.Persico, The Imperial Rockefeller (New York, 1982), 262.
64. . Wilmerdmg, The Vice
Presidency, 17; A.J.Beveridge, The Fifth Wheel in our
Government, Century, December 1909; -
pa . James MacGregor Burns, A New Look at the Vice
Presidency, New York Times Magazine, 9 October 1955.
65. Woodrow Wilson, Congressional Government (Boston, 1901),
240.
66. Truman, Public Papers... 1945, 129.
67. Truman, Year of Decisions, 53.
68. In his testimony in 1964, before the Senate Judiciary Committee,
Senate Judiciary Committee, Selected Materials
on the Twenty-Fifth Amendment, Senate Document 93-42, 93rd
Cong., IstSess. (1973), 95.
69. James G.O'Hara, testimony before the Vice Presidential Selection
Commission of the Democratic National Committee, 7 November
1973 ( ), 10.
70. Danny M.Adkison, The Electoral Significance of the Vice
Presidency, Presidential Studies Quarterly, Summer 1982, 330
336. . . 332.
71. Roosevelt, The Three Vice-Presidential Candidates, 292.
72. CBS News Spesial Report On Choosing a Vice President,
. no Goldstem, Modern American Vice Presidency, 66.
73 Truman, Year of Decisions, 54.
74 Wilhams, Rise, 110.
75. Theodore Roosevelt, Letters, ed. E.E.Morison (Cambridge, Mass ,
1951), III, 57.
76. Williams, Rise, 89.
77. Alben Barkley, That Reminds Me (New York, 1954), 221.
78. , ,
Arthur M.Schlesmger, Jr., AThousand Days (Boston, 1965), 704
79. Minneapolis Tribune, 2 June 1974
80. Time, 14 November 1969.
81. ; .: Breshn, Police Riot, New York
Magazine, 16 September 1968.
82. Danny M.Adkison, The Vice Presidency as Apprenticeship,
Presidential Studies Quarterly, Spring 1983, 212-218.
, ,
Schlesmger poll (1962), the Maranell-Dodder poll (1970), the
United States Historical Society poll (1977) the Chicago
Tribune poll (1982).
83. Time, 14 November 1969.
84. Congressional Record, 21 December 1973, S 23756 (daily ed.).
85. Donald Graham, The Vice Presidency: From Cigar Store Indian
to Crown Prince, Washington Monthly, April 1974.
86. Roosevelt, Letters, III, 60.
677

87. Senate Judiciary Committee, Selected Materials on the Twenty-
fifth Amendment, 124.
88. Walter Lippmann, Wrong Answer, Right Question, New York
Herald Tribune, 12 November 1946.
89. On the Threshold of the White House, Atlantic Monthly, July
1974.
90. Lippmann, Wrong Answer, Right Question.

ࠠ 1 3.

: Hoover Makes a
Comeback, New York Review of Books, 8 March 1979; The Ike Age
Revisited, Reviews m American History, March 1983; What the
Thousand Days Wrought, New Repabhc, 21 November 1983.
1. . , ., -
, . 236-237.
2. Pieter Geyl, Napoleon: For and Against (1949; Peregrine
paperback 1965), 15.
3. . : Paul Johnson, Modem
Times (New York, 1983), 219-222; Thomas .Silver,
Coolige and the Historians (Durham, N.C., 1983).
4. The Critic as Artist, : The Artist as Critical Writings of Oscar
Wilde, ed. Richard Ellman (New York, 1969), 359.
5. William Appleman Williams, America Confronts a Revolutionary
World: 1776 1976 (New York, 1976), 180; Joan Hoff-Wilson,
Herbert Hoover: Forgotten Progressive (Boston, 1975), 275.
6. Walter Lippmann, The New Imperative (New York, 1935), 12-13,
20.
7. Carl Degler, The Ordeal of Herbert Hoover, Vale Review,
Summer 1936.
8. Williams, America Confronts a Revolutionary World, 159.
9. Elhs W.Hawley, Herbert Hoover and Modern American History
Fifty Years After, Congressional Record (daily ed ), 27 February
1980, S 1931. , -

50- -
.
10. Albert U.Romasco, Herbert Hoover's Policies for Dealing with
the Great Depression: The End of the Old Orber or the Beginning
of the New? : The Hoover Presidency, ed. Martin L.Fausold and
George T.Mazuzan (Albany, 1974), 69-86.
1 1 Arthyr M.Schlesmger, Jr., The Crisis of the Old Order (Boston,
1957), 232.
12. David Burner, Herbert Hoover: A Public Life (New Yoirk, 1978),
268.
13. Herbert Hoover, Memoirs, III: The Great Depression (New York,
1952), 195.
678

14. Herbert Hoover, State Papers (New York, 1934), II, 228ff.
15. J.S.Olson, Herbert Hoover and Reconstruction Finance
Corporation, 1931 1933 (Ames, Iowa, 1955), 77-88.
16. Arthur M.Schlesmger, Jr., The Coming of the New Deal (Boston,
1958), 431.
17. Hoover to Simeon D.Fess, 27 December 1933, : Rochard Norton
Smith, An Uncommon: The Triumph of Herbert Hoover (New
York, 1984). 192-193.
18. Williams, America Confronts a Revolutionary World, 159;
Williams Some Presidents from Wilson to Nixon (New York,
1972), 39.
19. Joan Hoff-Wilson, Herbert Hoover Reassessed, Congressional
Record (daily ed.), 25 June 1979, S 8464.
20. Elhs W.Hawley, Herbert Hoover and American Corporatism,
1929 1933", : The Hoover Presidency, ed. Fausold and
Mazuzan, 104; Hawley, Hoover and Modern American History",
S 1931.
21. Hawley, Hoover and American Corporatism, 104.
22. Williams, Some Presidents, 39.
23 Burner, Hoover, 141.
24 Ibid., 59, 249. -
Herbert Hoover Forgotten Progressive (Boston,
1975), 15, 166.
25. Burner, Hoover, 79, 110-11, 151.
26. Ibid., 63.
27. In his review of Burner, New Republic, 10 March 1979.
28 Martin L.Faudold, The Presidency of Herbert C.Hoover
(Lawrence, Kans., 1985), 7.
29. Burner, Hoover, 141.
30. Hoover, Memoirs, III, 234.
31. Fausold, Hoover, 123.
32. George W.Norris, Fighting Liberal: The Autobiography of George
W.Norns (New York, 1945), 314-315.
33. Burner, Hoover, 215.
34 I.H.Hoover, Forty-Two Years in the White House (Boston, 1934),
301-303. -
Donald J.Lisio, Hoover, Blacks, and Lily-Whites
(Chapel Hill, 1985).
35 Burner, Hoover, 70.
36. Norns, Fighting Liberal, 287.
37. Hoover, Memoirs, II: The Cabinet and the Presidency, 1920
1933 (New York, 1952), 197-198; Memoirs, HI, 234, 329.
38. Burber, Hoover, 58.
39. Hoover, State Papers, I, 527.
40. Burner, Hoover, 264.
41. Patrick J.Maney, Young Bob La Follette: A Biography of
679

Robert M.La Follette, Jr., 1895 1953 (Columbia, Mo., 1978),
110, 87-88.
42. W.A.White to David Hmshaw, 13 February 1931, Fausold,
Hoover, 131.
43. Richard W.Lowitt, George W.Norns: The Triumph of a
Progressive, 1933 1944 (Urbana, 111., 1978), x; Maney, La
Follette. 110.
44. Wilson, Hoover, 274.
45. Olson, Hoover and the RFC, 23.
46. Williams, Some Presidents, 39.
47. Burner, hoover, 260.
48. Hawley, Hoover and Modern American History, S 1931.
49. Wilson, Hoover, 229-230.
50. In his letter to William E.Borah, 28 February 1928.
51. Robert H.Ferrell, ed., The Elsenhower Diaries (New York, 1981).
, -
, (-) -
, 1939
.,
,
. - ,
-
, ,
,
-
, . William
B.Ewald Elsenhower the President: Crucial Days'
1951 1960 (Englewood Cliffs, N.J , 1981) -
8 1953 . (81) 6 1 957 (28),
. Stephen E.Ambrose
Ike's Spiels: Elsenhower and the Espionage Establishment
Richard H.Immerman (New York, 1981), -
1 1968 .
14
1976 . Fred Greenstem : The Hidden-Hand Presidency
Elsenhower as Leader (New York, 1982) -
, .
52 Ferrell, ed., Diaries, 50.
53 Dwight D.Elsenhower, Mandate for Change (New York, 1963),
477-478.
54. Richard Nixon, Six Crises (1962; Warner paperback, 1979), 189.
55. W.C.Bruce, John Randolph of Roanoke (New York, 1922), II,
203.
56. Greenstein, Hidden-Hand Presidency, 57-58.
57. Ibid., 101.
58. Anne O'Hare McCormick, Roosevelt's View of the Bid Job,
New York Times Magazine, 11 September 1932.
59. Arthur Larson, Elsenhower: The President Nobody Knew (1968;
Popular Library paperback, ), 123.
680

60. Stephen E.Ambrose, The Ike Age, New Republic, 9 May 1981.
61. 18
1966 ., -
.
62. Stephen E.Ambrose, Elsenhower the President (New York, 1984),
190.
63. Larson, Elsenhower, 122.
64. Ibid., 10.
65. Robert A.Divme, Elsenhower and the Cold War (New York,
1981), vn-viii.
66. Ferrell, ed., Diaries, 155-156. 160, 212.
67. Ewald, Elsenhower, 33, 242.
68. N.S.Khrushchev, Khrushcev Remembers, ed. Strobe Talbott
(Boston, 1970), 397, 458; Khrushchev Remembers: The Last
Testament (Boston, 1974), 487, 491.
69. Anthony Glees, Churchill's Last Gambit, Encounter, April
1985, 30.
70. John Colville, The Fringes of Power (New York, 1985), 654, 672
71. Ibid., 683.
72. Ibid., 673.
73. Divine, Elsenhower and the Cold War, 155.
74. Ibid., IX.
75. Kermit Roosevelt, Countercoup: The Struggle for the Control of
Iran (New York, 1979), 107.
76. Anthony Eden, Full Circle (Boston, 1960), 235.
77. Ambrose, Elsenhower the President, 621.
78. Ibid., 197.
79. ibid., 286.
80. cm. Brian Urquhart, Hammarskjold (New York, 1972), 121
W.R.Corson, The Armies of Ignorance (New York, 1977), 365-
366.
81. : February 1957 report of the President's Board of
Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities; Arthur
M.Schlesinger, Jr., Robert Kennedy and His Times (Boston,
1978), 456. 1952 . J.L.Gaddis,
Strategies of Containment (New York, 1982), 157. .
Ambrose, Elsenhower the President, 395
82 William Manchester, Portrait of a President (Boston, 1962), 35
83. David Bruce and Robert Lovett, Covert Operations, report to
President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence
Activities [1956], Rpbert F.Kennedy Papers; . .
Schlesmger, Robert Kennedy, 455-456.
84. Report to the Special Assistant for National Security, 12 February
1957 Schlesmger, Robert Kennedy, 456.
85. White House meeting of the Board with Elsenhower, 16
December 1958 Schlesinger, Robert Kennedy, 457.
86. Ambrose, Elsenhower the President, 506-507.
681

87. Report to Elsenhower, 5 January 1961 Schlesmger, Robert
kennedy. 457-458.
88. Hearings of Cuba Study Group, 11 May 1961 Schlesmger,
Robert Kennedy, 458.
89. Ambrose, Elsenhower the President, 135.
90. Clark Clifford, Memorandum on Conference between President
Elsenhower and President-elect Kennedy and their Chief
Advisers on January 19, 1961", Schlesmger, Robert Kennedy,
444.
91. Gregg Herken, The Winning Weapon (New York, 1980), 345.
92. Henry A.Wallace, The Price of Vision: The Diary... 1942-1946,
ed. John Morton Blum (Boston, 1973), 474, 530.
93. Herken, Winning Weapon, 373.
94. David Lihenthal, Journals... The Atomic Energy Years 1945-50
(New York, 1964), 391.
95. Herken, Winning Weapon, 332-333.
96.
, -
. .: From the Danube to the Yalu
Truman, Off the Record: The Private Papers of Harry S Truman,
ed. R.H.Ferrell (New York, 1980), 304
97. Ambrose, Elsenhower the President, 658.
98. McGeorge Bundy, Atomic Diplomacy Reconsidered, Bulletin
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, October 1984,
30.
99. National Security Council meetings, 13 May, 20 May, 3
December, 1953, JCS-State Memorandum, 7 January 1954, New
York Times, 8 June 1984.
100. Divine, Elsenhower and the Cold War, 49.

101. Ambrose, Elsenhower the President, 180.
102. Murray Marder, When Ike Was Asked to Nuke Vietnam,
Washington Post, 22 August 1982.
103. Divine, Elsenhower and the Cold War, 62.
104. Gaddis, Strategies of Containment, 170.
105. R.H.Immerman, Diplomatic Dialings- The John Foster Dulles
Telephone Transcripts, Society for Historians of American
Foreign Relations Newsletter, March 1983.
106. Divine, Elsenhower and the Cold War, 65-66
107. National Security Council meeting, 31 March 1953, Foreign
Relations of the United States 1952-1954, XV, Korea
(Washington, 1984), 827.
( ) , -
FRUS 1952-1954, , National Security Affairs, 276
108. Colville, Fringes of Power, 685; Colville, Wmston Churchill and
His Inner Circle (London, 1981), 139.
109. Ferrell, ed., Diaries, 202, 222.
110. Eden, Full Circle, 117; G.C.Herring and R.H.Immerman,
Elsenhower, Dulles, and Dienbienphu: The Day We Didn't Go
682

to War Revisited", Journal of American History, September 1984,
360.
111. Ambrose, Elsenhower the President, 225.
112. London Times, 3 January 1985.
113. Bundy, Atomic Diplomacy Reconsidered, 52.
114. Ambrose, Elsenhower the President, 229.
115. Elsenhower to R.L.Simon, 28 March 1956, David Broder,
Elsenhower on the folly of nuclear war, Boston Globe, 7
September 1983.
116. Sherman Adams, Firsthand Report (New York, 1961), 87.
117. Gaddis, Strategies of Containment, 173.
118. Ambrose, Elsenhower the President, 493-494.
119. George B.Kistiakowsky, A Scientist at the White House
(Cambridge, Mass., 1976), 293.
120. Ambrose, Elsenhower the President, 590.
121. Walter Pincus, 40 Years of the Bomb, Washington Post Weekly,
5 August 1985.
122. Ambrose, Elsenhower the President, 590.
123 Michael Howard, Keeping the Team Together, Times Literary
Supplement, 8 February, 1985.
124. Schlesmger, Robert Kennedy, 702.
125. Ambrose, Elsenhower the President, 660-665, H.W Brands, Jr ,
Johnson and Elsenhower: The President, the Former President,
and the War in Vietnam, Presidential Studies Quarterly,
Summer 1985.
126. John Colville, Footprints in Time (London, 1976), 192.
127. Ronald Steel, Walter Lippmann and the American Century
(Boston, 1980), 502.
128. Arthur M.Schlesmger, Jr , Journal, 12 February 1981.
129. Eric Hobsbawm, Why America Lost the Vietnam War, Listener,
18 May 1927.
130. Richard M.Nixon, Cuba, Castro, and John F.Kennedy, Reader's
Digest, November 1964.
131. Ehe Abel, The Missile Crisis (New York, Bantam Paperback,
1966), 162.
132. Charles Dickens, American Notes, ch.XVIII.
133. Arthur M.Schlesmger, Jr., A Thousand Days: Kennedy in the
White House (Boston, 1965), 635.
134. Ibid., 1012.
135. Ibid., 941.
136. Ibid., 971.
137. John F.Kennedy. Public Papers... 1963 (Washington, 1964), 469.
138. Schlesmger, Robert Kennedy, 358; Martin Luther King, Jr., Why
We Can't Wait (New York, Signet Paperback, 1964), 147.
139. Look, 17 November 1964.
140. Jack Anderson, Conversation with an Author: Jack Anderson,
Book Digest, May 1979.
683

141. Schlesmger, Robert Kennedy, 605.
142. Speech at University of Washington, 16 November 1962, John
F.Kennedy, Public Papers... 1961 (Washington, 1962), 726.
143. Schlesmger, Robert Kennedy, 713.
144. Ibid., 712.
145. Kenneth O'Donnell and David Powers, Johnny, We Hardly
Knew Ye (Boston, 1972), 16; Schlesmger, Robert Kennedy,
ch.31; Jack Anderson, The Roots of Our Vietnam Involement,
Washington Post, 4 May 1975.
146. Schlesmger, A Thousand Days, 331.
147. Address to Latin American diplomatic cops, 13 March 1962, John
F.Kennedy, Public Papers... 1962 (Washington, 1963), 224.
148. . -
; .: Jean Daniel, Unofficial Envoy, New Republic,
14 December 1963, Frank Mankiewicz and Kirby Jones, With
Fidel (Chicago, 1975, 200-202. , -
1985 .
149. Speeches at University of California, 23 March 1962, Kennedy
Public Papers... 1962, 265 and American University, 10 June
1963, Public Papers... 1963, 462.
150. Speech at United Nations, 25 September 1961, Public Papers
1961, 618, 620.
151. Schlesmger, A Thousand Days, 831
152. Press conference, 21 March 1963, Public Papers 1963, 280
153. Schlesmger, A Thousand Days, 904
154. Norman Cousins, The Improbable Triumvirate (New York, 1972],
114.
155. Khrushchev, Khrushchev Remembers, 500, Khrushchev
Remembers. The Last Testament, 513-514
156 Schlesmger, A Thousand Days, 110
157. Herbert L.Mathews, Fidel Castro (New York, 1969), 225.
158. Robert F.Kennedy, Foreword to John F Kennedy, Profiles in
Courage (Memorial ed , New York, 1964), IX
159 Arthur M.Schlesmger, Jr., The Crisis of the Old Order (Boston,

1957), IX.

14.
-
: On Leadership, The introduction to the Chelsea House
series World Leaders: Past and Present (New York, 1985); Politics and
the American Language, Blashfield Address at the American
Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, The
American Scholar, Autumn 1974; The Decline of Greatness,
Saturday Evening Post, 1 November 1958, On Heroic Leadership,
Encounter, December 1960; Creativity in Statecraft (Occasional
Papers of the Council of Scholars, No.I, Library of Congress, 1983).
1. .. , ., ; .,
684

14- , ., -
, 1951.
2. William James, The Dilemma of Determinism, The Will to
Believe and Other Essays m Popular Philosophy (New York,
1897), 150.
3. Isaiah Berlin, Four Essays of Liberty (Oxford, 1969), 113, 72.
4. James, Great Men and Their Environment, Will to Believe, 235.
5. Engels to Starkenberg, . : Sidney Hook, The Hero m History
(1943; Beacon paperback, 155), 79.
6. Arthur M.Schlesmger, Jr., The Crisis of the Old Order (Boston,
1957), 466.
7. William James, The Social Value of the College-Bred,
Memories and Studies (New York, 1911), 318.
8. James, Will to Believe, 227, 230.
9. Willam Wordsworth, Preface to Poems Essay Supplementary
to Preface, Wordsworth's Literary Criticism, ed. N.C Smith
(London, 1905), 150-151, 195, 198.
10. Henry Kissinger, Domestic Structure and Foreign Policy,
American Defense Policy, ed. R.G.Head and E.J.Rokke
(Baltimore, 1973), 20.
11. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy m America, I, ch.XIII.
12 Freud, Analysis Terminable and Interminable (1937), .
no: Janet Malcolm, The Impossible Profession, New Yorker, 24
November 1980.
13. Emerson, Power, The Conduct of Life.
14. Machiavelh, The Prince, ch.VI.
15. Joseph A.Schumpeter, The Theory of Economic Development
(Cambridge, Mass., 1934), 85
16 Ibid., 87
17 J.M.Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and
Money (New York, 1936), 32 -
-
.
18. Ibid., 33.
19 J.K.Galbraith, Economics as a System of Belief, Economics,
Peace and Laughter (Boston, 1971), 63, 65.
20. Tocqueville, Democracy in Americf, II, Third Book, ch.XXI.
21. James Bryce, The American Commonwealth (New York, 1888),
II, 322-323.
22. Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life (New York, 1909),
451.
23. Karl Popper, The Open Society and Its Enemies (Pnnceton,
1950), 154-155.
24. Alexis de Tocqueville, Recollections, ed J.P.Mayer (New York,
1959), Part I, ch.V.
25. Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams (Boston, 1918),
ch.XXIII.
26. Karl Popper, The Poverty of Historicism (Boston, 1957), 67.
685

27. Wmston Churchill to Bourke Cockran, 12 April [1896],
Randolph Churchill, Wmston S.Churchill, Companion Volume I,
Parti (Boston, 1967), 668.
28. Locke, Second Treatise on Civil Government, 224.
29. Jefferson to Adams, 28 October 1813, Jefferson, Writings, ed
Merrill LPeterson (Library of America, 1984), 1305-13067
30. Tocqueville to Mill, 5 December 1835 J.P.Mayer, Alexis de
Tocqueville (New York, 1960). 115.
31. Bryce, American Commonwealth, II, 460.
32. Emerson, Napoleon; or, the Man of the World, Representative
Men.
33. Woodrow Wilson, Leaders of Men, ed. T.H.Vail Motter
(Prmceton, 1952), 53-54.
34. Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, Writings, 290
35. Emerson, Language, Nature, ch IV
36 Tocqueville, Democracy in America, II, First Book, ch.XVI.
37 Joel Porte, rd., Emerson in His Journals (Cambridge, Mass ,
1982), 421.
38 Emerson, Napoleon
39 Language.
40 Remhold Niebuhr, The Children of Light and the Children of
Darkness (1944, Scribner Paperback, ), XIII
41 James, The Importance of Individuals, Will to Believe, 261
42 Emerson, Uses of Great Men, Representative Men.

43 Irving Babbit, Democracy and Leadership (Boston, 1924), 167


















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