. . :

( . - , 2002, 1)

1952 , , . " " [1], , .
, , . [2], , .
1955 . [3], , , , .
1960 . " " [4].
1955 . , 1980- .. , [5].
. , , , , , : , , .
- .

. , . , , . - , - , .
? , . , . ( - , - ). . , , , , . , , , , ( - , , , V-VI . [6]), (. , , .).
, . , , . 200- () , - 100- ( ). , , - , , . " , , !", - , . , , , : 1) ; 2) , .
, , , [7]. , , , , , . . , , .. .. . .
All () - , , " ", " ".
Big () - , , , " ", " ".
Man () - " ", , "".
Person () - " ( )", ", ".
Swim () - , (, ..).
Thin () - .
Fat () - , ( ), .
Fly () - , (, ..).
Stay () - , .
This () - ( ).
That () - ( , ).
Cold () - , , ..
Burn () - " ", " " .., "".
Tongue () - , .
We () - (" "), .
I () - , .
Hair () - , , , .
Tail () - , .., , ..
. .
, . , , , burn "", - "", .

, .. , . , . , , , , .
"" . , : < , . .-.-. glas ", " [8], < , . .-. *sabaka, . spaka- [9], < , , . .-. xorz, .-. xvarz "" [10]. - , . , , . , , : , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , [11]. , , : , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , [12]. , , , , , . , , , . , - ( ). .
. , , . , . . " " [13], .

, . , , , , .
90%. , . , , . ( ) [14]:

. / . 89 (92) 97% 83 (88) 94% 81 (87) 93% 82 (87) 94% 87 (93) 94%
83 (85) 98% 81 (85) 95% 80 (83) 96% 81 (87) 93%
82 (85) 97% 78 (84) 93% 79 (86) 92%
78 (84) 93% 78 (86) 91%
76 (86) 88%

. , . , XII-XIII .
, , . (, ) ( 81% [15], 86 - 87% ), , , , .
, , . , () , . , , "" , , ( , , , ), .
, , . , , , , , . , . (- - ) [16].

. . . . . . . . . . . . .
46 40 35 44 39 34 31 29 27 21 16 22 21
43 42 56 39 39 35 33 29 23 15 23 20
64 57 57 47 38 42 38 32 24 33 31
63 51 46 46 39 35 28 19 28 28
49 50 48 42 44 30 23 34 32
53 49 41 35 30 19 27 27
45 35 31 25 17 28 23
55 36 35 25 37 32
46 36 28 32 30
49 28 33 35
40 49 43
51 38
59

, . . .
, 15 - 20%. , , , , , , . , . .. , (, , -, ) , 20%, .
- . , .. . [17], ( ):

. . . .-. . . . . .
12 10 13 9 10 8 9 15
87 40 49 49 52 51 40
42 55 54 55 54 43
73 62 59 58 44
.- 71 67 67 44
77 76 57
- . 96 61
62

( 8 15%), . , , , "" , . , , , .

. .
, , . , , , , . ( ) [18]:

. . . . . . . . -. -. . . . .
68 49 47 47 47 43 44 46 46 46 44 44 45 46
44 45 40 44 40 41 42 43 45 40 41 41 42
41 41 40 39 42 42 42 42 40 41 39 40
86 86 77 74 74 73 74 74 71 70 74
92 76 73 76 74 74 71 73 71 72
80 77 80 78 78 76 77 74 77
81 85 83 80 79 75 71 74
92 87 87 84 79 75 74
87 86 80 80 76 75
.- 94 78 74 73 71
.- 78 77 76 73
85 75 76
84 80
86

- : 1) (, ), 2) , 3) , , , ( ) [19].
, , , .
, , , .
"", x, , . [20]. , . ( ) : , , , . 40 , (34) , , , , , , - [21].
. . , 3 . .. ( , ) [22].
, , (). , a priori [23]. ( ) [24].

.-. . . . . . .
95 95 85 73 74 67 63
- 96 85 72 75 69 64
85 74 75 68 64
83 82 80 70
89 86 72
95 78
76

, (), . , , , .
- . , , [25].
1. (, , ) .
2. .
3. ( ), , () , , .
4. ( ) (, , ), .
, , , , [26].

, , . :
1) . , , . .
2) , .. . , , . , .
3) , .. . , . .
. (, , , ). , .

1. Swadesh M. Lexicostatistic Dating of Prehistoric Ethnic Contacts with Special Reference to North American Indians and Eskimos // Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. 96. 1952.

2. ., , : Swadesh M. Diffusional Cumulation and Archaic Residue as Historical Explanations // South-Western Journal of Anthropology. Vol. 7. 1950.

3. Swadesh M. Towards Greater Accuracy in Lexicostatistic Dating // International Journal of American Linguistics. Vol. 21. 1955.

4. . // . . 1. - ., 1960. - . 23-52; . . - . - . 53-87.

5. .: .. - // ( ). . 1. ., 1989. - . 3-39.

6. .., .. . - ., 1989. - . 203.

7. . ., , . : Bromley M. The Linguistic Relationships of Grand Valley Dani: A Lexico-statistical Classification // Oceania. V. XXXVII, 1966. - P. 286 - 291. . : . ( ) // . . 1. - ., 1960. - . 88-107; .. () // . . 1. - ., 1960. - . 15.

8. , ; , .: . . . 1. - ., 1986. - . 409-410.

9. . - . 702-703. , , ; .. , , .: .. . - ., 1960. - . 29.

10. . . . - . 267. .

11. .. // . - , 2001, 1. - . 34-36.

12. . - . 37-40.

13. . // . 1964. . - ., 1965. - . 272-311. . .. (. 311-322).

14. , - , . .

15. . .. . - ., 1990. - . 125.

16. Dye W., Townsend P., Townsend W. The Sepik Hill Languages: A Preliminary Report // Oceania. V. XXXIX, 1968, 2. - P. 153. . , 20 .

17. .., .. - // . 1986. . - ., 1986. - . 55.

18. Girdenis A., Maziulis V. Baltu kalbu divercencine chronologija // Baltistica. T. XXVII (2). - Vilnius, 1994. - P. 9.

19. .. , " ", .: .. . . - D. - ., 1975. - . 5.

20. Dyen I. The Lexicostatistical Classification of the Malayo-Polynesian Languages // Language. V. 38, 1962; Dyen I. A Lexicostatistical Classification of the Austronesian Languages. - Baltimore, 1965. . 196- , . .

21. .. // - . . - ., 1982. - . 218.

22. .: . . - ., 1986. - . 151-153.

23. .: .. . - ., 1990. - . 31. , , , .: Kochanowski J. Trois enigmes tsiganes // Lingua posnaniensis. - T. XXV. - Warszawa - Poznan, 1982. - P. 107.

24. .. . - . 39-40.

25. .. ( ) // . . 2001. . - , 2001. - . 15-16.

26. .. . ., 1922. - . 15. .: .. // . ., 1980. - . 100-126; .. // . ., 1990. - . 527.


















sitemap:
. , , .