.


( . - ., 1990. - . 153-172)

, .
. . [ * ]

. , , . , , , . ! (Thou shalt not commit metaphor). , . .

, , , . : ?, - ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ( ), ? (, , ""?) , , .

, . , .

. , . . , , .

, :

(I) The chairman plowed through the discussion

' ' (. ' ').

(II) A smoke screen of witnesses .

'.

(III) An argumentative melody

' ' (. ' ')

(IV) Blotting-paper voices (Henry James)

', ' (. ', ') ( ).

(V) The poor are negroes of Europe (Chamfort)

' ' ().

(VI) Light is but the shadow of God (Sir Thomas Browne)

' ' ( ).

(VII) Oh dear white children, casual as birds, Playing amid the ruined languages (Auden)

' , , ' ().

, . , , ( , , ), . , , , , , : The clouds are crying . ' ' The Branches are fighting with one another . ' '. ( , ?) , .

: The chairman plowed through the discussion ' '. plowed ', ' (to plow, . ', , ...') , . , plowed ', ' , . ( ) , - , . , : smoke screen ' ', argumentative ' , ', blotting-r ' ' negroes ''. ( . , light '' , . the shadow of God ' ' . , ., , white ', . ' . .)

, , , . , -, , . , : In the night all cows are black . ' '. ( , ) .

II

The chairman plowed through the discussion ( . ' ') , , ( plowed '') , . plowed (focus) , (frame). (He , ? ?) , , . , , , , .

, , , , , . , , , , [ 1 ]. ( , , .)

, - I like to plow my memories regularly ( . ' '). , , ? , ( ). (interplay) [ 2 ] . , , , . , , , .

, , , , , , . , , . , a cesspool '' , , , . , : , , . , , . ( ), ( ), , . that utensil ' ' ( . ', '), , , . ( , that utensil , . , , , .) , , , .

, (weight) ( emphasis), . , , , . ( , ? ?) . . [ 3 ] .

. , , (, , , ), , . , , , , . , . (, , , , , , .)

III

The chairman plowed through the discussion , . ( , ) :

- . , , , - , plowed, , , . , [ 4 ]. , , , (literal) , , L, , , . , L. , , , , . ( ).

, , (a substitution view of metaphor). ( , , , .) ( ), - . . , , [10, . 280]. , : : , , , , , , , - ; [ 5 ]. , , , (sophisticated) , : , [ 6 ].

, ( , ) , . L; : L. .

, , . , , L. (leg, . ' ') , ; cherry lips . '-', , . ( ). , , . [ 7 ]. , . (orange . '') , ( ), . (osculating curves . ' ') , . . : , .

, , , , , ( , ) - ). , , Richard is a lion ' ' [ 8 ], , , Richard is brave ' [ 9 ]. .

, . , ( ) , , ( ). , , , . . , , : - , , . , , - [ 10 ].

, . , , . , , [10] [ 11 ]. , , , .

IV

, , , . , , ( , ), . , , , f(m) ; f~ 1 , f~ 1 (f(m)) , . . m . . , , ; . .

. , , L . ( ), , , , ( L).

, , (comparison view). , , , , , : ; , : , . .. . , , , , , .

: : , [ 12 ]. . , , , : , [2, . 159]. .

( ) , , Richard is a lion. , , Richard is brave, , Richard is like a lion (in being brave) ' ( ) ', , . , , . , , [ 13 ].

, , . , , (), , (L), . : , ( ), , L. ? , , ? . , , , . , : , , ? , , . , - , . , . : X ̔, L (, , L 1 L 2 , L 3 ...), - L. , , [ 14 ].

V

, (interaction view). , [ 15 ].

: , , - , [. . ., . 46] [ 16 ]. , , . The poor are the negroes of Europe ' '. , - . ( ? , , ?) , . , , , .

, , , , , , . ( , ) . , , , , , [ 17 ].

? , ( ) (. ., . 59), ( ) , . , , , , [ 18 ]. , (. ., . 64), . . , ( -), , . . , , .

, , . : Man is a wolf ' '. : (principal subject) ( ) (subsidiary subject) ( ). , , . , : , , , , (The system of associated commonplaces). , , , , , , . , , - , . (, ), , . ( , , ). , , , , .

- . , . , , (beliefs) . - (, , ) . , , , , . . . , , , .

, () . , , , , . . ( ), . , . , , . , . , . , , , . - , .

, , . , , . , ? , , . ( , .)

. , , . , . . . , , , , , ( , ).

, . () , , , (, , ). , , , : , . ( .)

, , , . . , , , .

, . , . , , , . ( , , : , .)

, , , , , . ( : , , .) , . , , , ( ).

, , . , ( ), . , . (, , , , , , . , .) , : , .

, . ( , ). , , , - . .

, .

VI

, , , .

, , :

(1) [ 19 ].

(2) (systems of things), (things).

(3) , , .

(4) , , , , ad hoc.

(5) , . , , , .

(6) , , , , , . ( , , .)

(7) , , , , , .

, (1) , (7) , .

. , , , , . [ 20 ]. , , . , . .

- -, (, , ) , , . . , ( , , ) , , . ( ), , .

, . , , ( , , ). . , , . , . , . , , , , .

, , . , . , , , . [ 21 ].

[1] . . ., 1957 ( . . ); . : . . . 4- ., . 4. ., 1984 ( . . ).
[2] ain A. English Composition and Rhetoric. London, 1887.
[3] arfild . Poetic Diction and Legal Fiction. In: "Essays Presented to Charles Williams". Oxford, 1947, p. 106127.
[4] wn S. J. The World of Imagery. London, 1927.
[5] Cope . . An Introduction to Aristotle's Rhetoric. London, 1867. Book III, Appendix B, Ch. 2 "On Metaphor".
[6] Empsn W. The Structure of Complex Words. London, 1951.
[7] Rihds I. A. Interpretation in Teaching. London, 1938.
[8] Stanford W.B. Greek Metaphor. Oxford, 1936.
[ 9] Stern G. Meaning and Change of Meaning. "Goteborgs Hogskolas Arsskrift", vol. 38, 1932, part 1.
[10] Whatl R. Elements of Rhetoric. London, 1846.

*. :
, , , , .
, , , , . , .
? . -, .
, , , . , , , ... , . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . , , , : , , , .
, ? .
, , , . , , : , . ( . . . . 20 , . 13. .., 1964, . 317). . .

1. ( ), .

2. , .

3. , , .

4. , . , , .

5. : : , , . : , , . .. , , . (variety) ? , , , . , , . . ( ?), . , ? ?

6. . [3], . 111 , ( tarning). , .

7. : : ; , ; . . , . , . .

8. , - - . , .

9. , , [9, . 300 .]. , , -. .

10. ; , . . [5].

11. , , ' , [9, . 296]. (Steigerung) , , , , ( , . 290). , , .

12. . [10]. , , , table-land ", ' (. table '' land '') , , , (, , ).

13. , , : , , , (1, 1457b]. , . , , [4, . . 67 c.].

14. , . , , . , , . (. (vulpine ', '). , .

15. , . 5 6 [. . ., . 4467]. . 7 8 [7] . . . , (integration theory) [8, . . 101 .]. , , . . 18 . [6] .

16. c , (. ., . 47). , , , (. 60).

17. , , , , (. ., . 64).

18. , .

19. , : , , , ( ) [. . ., . 46]. . . (. 21).

20. , [] - , , , , [6, . 333]. .

21. ( .) , , : (1) , (2) F, (3) F () ; (4) m' (), F (), (5) m () -X. : ( ), ( F (E)), ( m') ( m).
. (6) (), , , , , ; (7) S, F (E), ; (8) I, S, (9) I, S, (9) , . , , F I , S, .
, (tenor) , (vehicle) , , , ( , , [. . ., . 48]. , ( ). , , . (), (S) (I). , : , , ( ), , , ( ) F (E).
, , , .


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