.

2.

1. A3

頠 -
( 1, 3), , -
. ,
-
, ࠠ
. .
-
, ࠠ
.
, , -
:
(1) sincerity may frighten the boy

,
:

(2) (i) (1) (S); frighten the boy (VP),
(V) frighten (NP) the boy; sincerity
NP; NP the boy (Det)
the, (N); NP sincerity
N; , the (Art), may
(Aux) , , -
().
(ii) NP sincerity (1),
VP frighten the boy -
; NP the boy -
VP, 蠠 V frighten ; -
- (since-
rity, frighten), - -
(frighten, the boy)1.
60

(iii) N boy 젠 (-
butter ""
sincerity) -
( John -
it ); , , -
( book "") 젠 -
(Human) ( bee ""); frighten
( occur "-
") 젠 , -
( read "", eat "");
 ( -
know "", own "");
( eat "", admire "-
") ( read "-
", wear "").

, , (2), -
, . ,
, , ꠠ -


. (2.1, 2.2, 2.3)
(2i), (2ii) (2iii), -
.

2. ɠ

2.1.

, (2i),
(1) , -
. -
(1), ,
 , - (3).
.
,  (1) , , -
(3), 堠 ꠠ
() (-).
, - ࠠ (3),
,
(the, boy . .),, 堠
(S, NP , V ..). -
(sincerity, boy) 堠 (, ..; , , , the, ).
61


-
. , , -
, -, - , 堠 ,
, -
.

-
, -
 (  -
) -
. ,
,
, -
 .
-
, ⠠ , -
젠 .
, -
, -
-
. -
. , -
,
. ,  蠠 .
, , -, , -
2.
- (3) -
.
 :
(4) A>Z/X-Y
X Y ( ) ,
Z .  -
62

, -
ࠠ Z, ,
X Y . (4) ... XAY... ...XZY.... , , W
V, W , V ,
-
( ,
). , 蠠 V , ,
W V . V -
, #S#- 蠠 #'V#, 堠 S
( ""), #-
( ). ,
-
頠 , 蠠 #S#,
, .
-
3, --
. 젠 , -
, ,
.
, -
, (
), -
( ). -
, - ( -
), (4) X Y , -
.
(.57 , 193 ), -
 -
, , -
, -
, , -
. , -
, -
("") ,
-
( . 30 -
1). -
, -, ࠠ 4,
.

53

,

, , -
. ,
, , 젠 , . , -
,  R1...,
Rn #S#,# X1 #,..., #m# X . ,
, : Ri
#Xj# , .
, Rk( k > 1) -
#1# ( l<j) 砠 # 1 1 #. .
, -
,
5.
- (3),
:.
(5) (I) S>NP^Aux^VP
VP>V^NP
NP>Det^N
NP>N
Det>the
Aux>M
(II) M>
N > sincerity
V > frighten
, (5), (3),
-
, boy may frighten the sincerity "
".' , 2.3.
(5) ,
( (II)), . , 2.3, 蠠 -

.
, (2i) -
,
, .

64

2.2.

(2 ii), , -
.
", "NP",
, 堠 . -
蠠 . , , (1) sincerity NP ( NP
)  sincerity (򠠠 )
蠠 (  ), -
"", "" -
, " -
", "", 堠 -
,
.
, (2 ii), -
- (3) (6), (5I) 蠠 젠 .
.' -, -
, 젠
(6)

,
. -, ,
蠠 (6), , ,
, ꠠ "", "", "-
" "", ,
- (3),
. -
, "-" -
, NP
NP^Aux^VP 젠 6, "" - -
NP VP ࠠ V^NP 頠 VP ..  

65

젠 , 
,  -
頠 ( , 堠
" ") -
.
, -
, .
pax (), ,
. -
.
(7),
, :
(7) (a) John was persuaded by Bill to leave

  1. John was persuaded by Bill to be examined
  2. what disturbed John was being regarded as incompetent
    , ( )

(7) John - persuade (to leave) -
leave;   (7b) John -蠠 persuade (to be exa-
mined) 蠠 -蠠 examine; ⠠ (7 ) John -
disturb, -蠠 regard (as incompetent) -
as incompetent. (7) (7b) ("") - -
Bill, a John,
"" - , 
(. 32). -
-
; ,
, -
, . -
-
. ,
砠 (7) , -
-,
, -
.
,

, 蠠 -.
, . , 젠
蠠 (5), ,,


(9) [, ]
, a X=YBZ Y, Z ( )7.
- W, , -
U W [, ] V W, V , , .
YBZ, U 8. , - -
(10). , - (3), -
(5), , sincerity

[NP, S] sincerity may frighten the boy, frighten the boy -
[VP, S] Ѡ sincerity may frighten the boy, the boy -
[NP, VP] frighten the boy 蠠 frighten -
[V, VP] Ѡ frighten the boy.
, : :
(11) (i) -: [NP, S]
(ii) -: [VP, S]
(iii) -: [HP, VP] .'.
(iv) -: [V, VP]
,
- (3), (5) sincerity -
蠠 sincerity may frighten the boy, Ƞ frighten the boy
; the boy - -
頠 frighten the boy, frighten 頠 . -
蠠 , 젠 -
(), (3),
(5).
; ,
 -
(ࠠ f (12 iv), (13 iv),
(14iv) 6 1).

67

(7) 堠
,
-, 堠 ,
-
. ( ),
(7 ) -
Bill persuaded John Sentence, John left " ࠠ , ", 蠠 堠 -
ꠠ , (3).
,
ࠠ 蠠 -
. , , -
:
(12;


(i) S > NP

(Naturally, John will come)

Aux^VP
(H) S>NP^Aux^VP
(iii) VP>V^NP
(iv) VP>V

(, )
(John will leave)
( )
(examine Bill)
( )
(leave)
()

(v) VP>V NP
(vi) VP>ࠠ

( persuade Bill that John left)
( , )
(be President)

(vii) >N

( )
(resident)
()

- (i), ꠠ
(ii), John - , -
(i) (ii); 堠 -
(iii), (v),  Bill - -
, 堠 (iii) (v); -
- (iii), (iv) (v),
examine, leave, persuade 蠠 蠠 -
. , "President"
-蠠 John is President,
, (12). ,
蠠 persuade Ƞ expect 堠 1, 4.
, (11) -
, S, NP, VP, N V
. ꠠ -
. , 
,

, . .
, -
( . 2.3,4). -
, , , , , (2 ii)
蠠 -
蠠 adhoc -
. , , -
, .
, .
, (2ii).
, , -
sincerity frighten (-) 蠠 frighten
the boy (-) (1).
, . , -
-
- 젠 - -
, -, -蠠 -
蠠 (11), -
- VP
- VP. ⠠ 蠠 - .
, -
 -,
,
-,
. , , -
, ,
. , 
, -
, , , ,
, 4.2,
. -
, , -
蠠 -, -
.
, 堠
, (2ii).
-,

69

(5) (12). -
. (6) 堠 , -
, 堠 , .
, , -
. , 
, .
, , , ( (5) ) ( (5II)), ,
. ,  . , -
, 頠 -
; , -
...X..., X , -
. , (5) N, V M -
9, Det (, -
, M u . 9) .
-
.
堠 2.3.4.

2.3.

2.3.1. . (2 iii)
 . --
, ,
. -,
, ,
堠 ⠠ (2 iii). 堠 ,
. ,
, , , -

. , , -
.
, , , -
, -,
 , , ,  , ,

1


. ,
, 頠 .
젠 -
, (2iii). ,
, ,
. , , , ࠠ
( .
4, 1.2). ,
, .
頠 (2iii) , 젠 堠
. , , :
(13) (i) the boy may frighten sincerity

(ii) sincerity may admire the boy

(iii) John amazed the injustice of that decision

(iv) the boy elapsed*

(v) the boy was abundant

(vi) the harvest was clever to agree
() , .
(vii) John is owning a house



(viii) the dog looks barking

(ix) John solved the pipe

(x) the book dispersed

, , ,
, :
* .
,
. : " " (: " ") (. .).
** , -
own
(Present Continuous). , -
. : "
"(. .).
71


(14) (i) sincerity may frighten the boy
.
(ii) the boy may admire sincerity

(iii) the injustice of that decision amazed John

(iv) a week elapsed

(v) the harvest was abundant

(vi) the boy was clever to agree.
() ,
(vii) John owns a house

(viii) the dog looks terrifying
()
(ix) John solved the problem

(x) the boys dispersed

(13) (14) , , , - .
( ). (13) -
( ) 10. ,
, , , -
(14). , -
, -
.
-
, :
(15) (i) sincerity frighten may boy the
(ii) boy the frighten may sincerity*

堠 (. "") , :
(16) (i) oculists are generally better trained than eye-doctors
,
(ii) both of John's parents are married to aunts of mine

* -
, (15i), 젠 (15ii)
(. .).


(Hi) I'm memorizing the score of the sonata I hope to compose some day
, --

(iv) that ice cube that you finally manager! to melt just shattered
, 堠 ,
.
(v) I knew you would come, but I was wrong
, ,
(13) , , ,
,
. ,
, -
-
.
, ,
. ⠠  堠 -
. -
. , ,
-
.
, 堠 -
. "蠠 ", , 蠠 -
, . ࠠ ,  -
, , -
堠 11. -
-
, - ⠠ 堠
-
, -
. , ;
,
.
, ,
,
, 젠 , -
ࠠ (13),
, ,
, , -,
. -
蠠 .

 


,
, -
, ,
,
, , . " -
" .
 -
, ,
, 堠 -
. , -
. , -
, - -
(13) 堠 , -

(14), , , 11.

, ,
, 蠠 (13 i), , , -
. -
, ,
, -
(14), (13), -
, -
,

頠 (13) , 蠠 ( -
) .   젠 堠
, ,
. , -
11, , " -
" ,
(13) (14) -
(13) --
.
,
, 堠 .
2.3.2.
. , (2 iii)
. ,  -
, "" ( , -
,


S NP^Aux^VP NP Det^N). , -, , -
. , 젠 -
, -
.
: ⠠ 2.2, -
(. Chomsky, 195112, 1955, 1957). -
. -
1957-1958 . ,  -
-
13.
, -
, -
. , , -
(John, Egypt) 堠 (boy
"", book "") 蠠 (John, boy) -
蠠 (Egypt, book). 堠 (,
, ) -
/, (, ,
 ) 蠠 /-
. ࠠ -
, - ,
. ,
/
, :
(17) N >
N >
> .-
> .-
> .
> .-
".-", ".-",".-
" ".-"  堠 -
ꠠ , "-
", "", "" " ".
, 젠 , -
젠 蠠 -
, , ,
.--
. . , , ,
堠  , -
78


, , , , - ,
.- -
.
, -
,
. ,
, -
.
Ѡ , 蠠
. ,
-
. , , ,
//, //, //, /s/,
, /s/, /z/, 堠
//, /b/ . . 
-
, -
-,
.
, , -
.
-
,
(.  Halle, 1959a, 1959b, 1962 a. 1964). -
,
, ,
ꠠ ࠠ -
, -
, .
i- j- ,
i- j- ,
,
 ( -
) ,  ( )  . -
, ⠠ ,
,
,
, ,
i i-
i- .
,
(18) -> Z/X_V


, 堠 A, Z, X Y-, 蠠 Z,
, ( ). -
. , (18)
堠 WX'A'Y'V, X', A', Y'- , , , X, A, Y, X'A'Y'
XAY ( , -
, -cp.  Halle and Chom-
sky, forthcoming). (18) WX'A'Y'V -
WX'Z'Y'V, Z' , , -,
Z, a -,
', Z .

:
(19) [+] ->[+]/[+]
/sm/ ⠠ /zm/, /fd/ ⠠ /vd/, /sg/
/zg/ .., , , /st/
/pd/14. ( , )
,
, -
, -
.
-
,

.

(, boy ""
[+], [+] . .).
, , (N, V
. .), -
, -
, -
-
. , -
:
(20) (i) N-> [+N, ]
() [+] -> [ ]
(iii) [+] -> [ ]
(iv) [-] -> [ ]
(v) [+ ] -> [ ]
(vi) [ ] -> [ ]
(20 i) , N

77

[+N, +] [+N,-]. (20 ii 20 vi) g , -
. , (20 ii) ,
Q, 堠
[+ ], , Q, 
"": [+] [-!. , 堠
.
(20) -
(21). -


:


, + . -
;
[a F] ( =+ 蠠 )
, , , , F. , -
(20), (21).
, 蠠 ,
-
; , , (20),
蠠 (22),
.

: (22)
(i)
(ii)
(Hi)
(iv)

N -> [+N, , ]
[+] - [ ]
[- ] []
[]
[+] ->[ ]

⠠ -
堠 ,  (22)
. (21), (20).

78

, ,
, *
.

2.3.3. . , (5), . , , (20), 堠 -

( -
). (5 II), -
, ;
 ,
-
. ,
, (D,
), D ,
"" , --
( -
)15.
, -
, -
.
.
蠠 젠 ࠠ
젠 젠 :
蠠 Q -
(D, ) , Ѡ -
Q,  Q D.
堠 , -
蠠 ( the boy NP
(3)), . , ,
Q D -
(D, ), D [ F] (,  -
, [a F]), [ F]
Q ࠠ , + , a F
( . 15). -
堠 "-" , -
.
-, ,, -, , "-
" 堠 . , ,

sincerity may frighten the boy ( = (1)), 蠠 (5) -
79

, (51),
(23), 蠠 (20),
(24), (25). -
, ,
"" ".
(23) S->NP^Aux^VP
VP -> V^NP
NP ->Det^N
NP->
Det ->the
Aux ->M
(24) (i) N->[+N, ]
(ii) [+] ->[]
(iii) [+] -> [ ]
(iv) [-] -> []
(v) [+]-> [ ]
(vi) [ ] -> [ ]
(25) (sincerity, [+N, , + ])
(boy, [+N, + , + , + ,
+ ])
(may, [+M])
,
.
:
(26) [+N, -, + ]^^Q^the^[+N, + -
, + , + ]
Q , V -
, . -
(
, ,
"") 젠 sinceri-
ty boy
(2) , , frighten Q ( may
. 9). frighten, -
(1), ⠠ (2),
-, ,
(23), (24) (25). 젠 --
(27).
, 堠 (26),
⠠ -, ࠠ
, , - ,
N V -
.
80

:

-, -
(2 i) (2 iii), -
, ; -
(2ii) - , 젠 2.2.
4, 2 , -
.
, -
. -, -
-
-
, -
. ,
, -
, (-
, , -
. .). 砠 -
, ,
, -
, -
, .
. , ꠠ (2iii), ,
, -
堠 ,
.
read "", eat "", , frighten "-
", keep "", , -
, ,
. -
, , -
,
, 젠
- , .
堠 , -
-
, ,
젠 , .
, -
, 16. , -
: () -
, (, -
堠 bee ""
,
- , 堠
, ,
젠 蠠 ) 17; (b) , -
(, -
82

 , ); () , ( ,
); (d) , -
, -
( ) . 堠 , , -

, , -
-
, ,  -
, (. 2.3.1 蠠 4, 1.1). , ,
-
.
 ⠠ ,
.
(. Katz, (1964 b)).
, 堠 ,
, ( -
). ⠠ 2.3.1 -
젠 , ࠠ -
-
,
- , 砠 .
, -

, "" -
,  ࠠ -
(. 2.3.1; Pos-
tal, 1964ࠠ Chomsky, 1964). , -
蠠 ,
() -
, -
. -
.
, -
.
蠠 -
. 堠 ,  - -,
. ,  -
蠠 젠 -
- 젠 .
, , , ,
( ),
 "" . , -
83

?1,..., ?(?1= #S#; ?n = # a1... k #,
i ,
), , , ?n+1 ,
?1,..., ?n-1 ?.
, , 젠 젠 . -

. , ,
, -,
.
, , , ,
" -
", .
-
, -
. -
-
(. Halle and
Chomsky, 1960, forthcoming; Chomsky and Miller, 1963, 6), e

, 堠
" " , 18.

,
, -
ꠠ ,
蠠 -
-
"" . , -
, , -
, , -
, ,
. , ,
, -
, 堠 ,
젠 (
, -
, 堠 
. 4). , 
, 
.

2.3.4. - .
, V .
, (23) (25). 堠 -
84

, , V
. .,
.
(28), (24), :
(28) V > [+V, , , --
, -]
, V
, [+-
], , NP. -
, -
[-] , ,
[+ ]... , -
[-] ,
... [],
,
. [-
], [-], [-] -
, -
, - (22),
19.

V:

  1. (i) V > [+V, + ]/ NP
    (H) V > [+V, -]/ #
  2. (i) [+V] > [+[+ ]-] /[+ N, + ]

Aux
(H) [+V] > [+[-]-] / [+ N, -]
Aux
(iii) [+V] > [+[+ ]-]/ _Det [+N,+ -
]
(iv) [+V]> [+[-]-]/ Det [+N, --
]

- 蠠
(4), (29), (30) (., , Chomsky, 1957, Appendix; . -
⠠ 7 !),
, ,

:

(31)

85


(32) (i) A> Z/X1-Y1

(n) A > Z/Xn_Yn
. -
(29) (30) , , (33) (34).

, (33) (34), ,
. 堠 , , (34) -
; (33) , -
, ,
, : [, grow (old)
" ()"; feel (sad) "/. / (-
)"], [become (president) " ()"] like^ [look (like a nice person) "-
( )", act (like a fool) " (
)"], .S' [think (that he will come) "(, )", be-
lieve (it to be unlikely) " (, )"], S'
, _ NP^S' [persuade (John that it is unlike-
ly) " (, )"] (
).
, ,
, - -
, -
. 堠 (
(34) ),
蠠 , -
-
; ( (33) -
), ࠠ -
66

,
, -
.
-
, -
, -
(33) (34),
(34)
(33):
(35)

F1 F2- 堠 ,
(34) , (35)
. (34) ( -
) , 젠 (35); -
蠠 -
, -
. , -
, 堠 (34), 堠
, , , ( 젠 堠 -
).
, 젠 堠 -
. -
, 堠 [+ ] -
, -
堠 NP. '堠
 "- NP" 20. , ,
堠 [X ], X Y
(, ) .
蠠 . , 堠 ( -
) [-NP], 堠 ࠠ grow "", feel ""
[-] 蠠 .. ,

, 렠 堠  , , . ,
:

(36) A > X^CS^Y/Z W
堠 頠
(37) > ^[+ , + Z _W]^Y/Z W,
"CS" "頠 ".
, :

:

(38) A > X^CS^Y/


(39) > ^[+, +Z1_W1^Y/Z1_W1

A > X^[+ A, + Zn _Wn ]^Y/Zn Wn
, (36*),
, , ,
,
.
, 젠 (33)
(40) :

:
(41) eat "", [+V, + -NP]
elapse " ( )", [+V,'.+ #]
grow "", [+V, + NP, + #, + ]
become "", [+V, + _, +
]
seem"", [+V, + , +like
]
* , , : (35) (. ,).

look "" [+V, +_ ( ) # ,
+ , + like ]
believe"", [+ V , + _ NP, + _ that^S]
persuade "", [+V, + _NP (of^Det^N) S']

. '.22. (40), 堠 젠 (41), -
, John eats food " ", a week
elapsed " ", John grew a beard " -
", John grew " ", John grew sad " -
", John became sad " ", John became presi-
dent " ", John seems sad " -
", John seems like a nice fellow " 젠 -
", John looked " ", John looked at Bill " -
", John looks sad "< ", John
looks like a nice fellow " ", John
believes me " ", John believes that it is unlikely
" (),  ", John persuaded Bill
that we should leave " , 젠 ",
John persuaded Bill of the necessity for us to leave "
蠠 젠 ".

, 젠 젠


.
堠 젠
 ,
(34), ࠠ
. , 젠 (34) :

[[+] Aux] , (34)
[[+]-], .. -
()-(37) , 젠
(34),  堠 (35), -
.
(40) (42) -
,
. , (40) -
-
, ' (4?) -
⠠ . (40),
-
, 蠠 -

89

. (42), ( ) -
, ,
. , "-
" " ".
, -
-
, , , -
, .
堠 (40), -
(42), 堠 ,
. 젠
(40).  V
, -
V . , -
, V
⠠ 堠 VP, V, ,
, ,
堠 VP,
蠠 V. , VP -
, :
(43) (i) V (elapse " ( )")
(ii) V NP {bring the book " ")
(iii) V MP that-S(persuade John that there was
no hope " ,
")
(iv) V . (decide on a new course of ac-
tion "
")
(v) V , (argue with John about the plan
, " -
")
(vi) V Adj (grow sad " -
")
(vii) V like 򠠠 (feel like a new man "-
")
(vin) V NP . (save the book for John "-
")
(ix) V NP . (trade the bicycle to John for
. a tennis racket " -
-
")
. . , VP, -
. , -
,
NP 蠠  23.  -
90

, ; -
蠠 蠠 ,
..) :
(44) V >CS/ -?, ? , V? VP
(44) ,
-
, V,


,

, , 堠 (40,
 . , -
(42). , -
堠 , 堠 ,
⠠ . , ࠠ (42) , -
頠 -
24, . -
젠 -
, .

:

(45) [+V]> CS/
, -
. -
蠠 , (45) .
, , -
 N ( -
, , , ). , -
(45), , , -

.
, (45) -
(20), ,
(20), -
ࠠ [+V].
(44) (45) ,
( 堠 )
, , 젠 堠
.
,
.
, , , -
9!

,
, .
" " -
. " -
" -
.
蠠 2.3.3 , -
, ,
( -
), 堠
-
. (44) (45) -
. ,
, :
(46) > CS/XY, XAY Z1,..., Zn,
"X Y1, ..., Yn" , X
= 1... n , Xi -
Yi -  .
堠 , -
頠 (. Chomsky, 1955,
1956 堠 ). , , -
, -
( ,  ), -

"" -
, , -
, 13, -
25.
, 頠 '
(i) ,
堠 () , (ii) -
, ,
,
. (i) -
, (ii) -
. 蠠 , -
(i) ,
-
(., , Chomsky and
Miller, 1963, p. 298, Chomsky and Schutzenberger, 1963, p. 133,
-
), (. 18). -
, , , -
頠 -
, -
92


. -
, -
堠 -
.

, , -
,
, 堠 -
. 堠 -
, -, 堠 , -
. ,
V ,
젠 VP, -
( 4.2), -
. ,
.
V : VP > V ...,  , VP, -
.
:

(4?) > CS/? ?, ?? ?,
, , ? 젠 , -
⠠ ?> ......, -
. ,  (47),
, ,
" ". . 18. -
, ,
, " " 18. 蠠
-
, , -
:
(48) A>CS,

. , 頠 -
, , -
. -
, -
.
, , -
, :
(49) NP>(Det) N(S')
93

-
[Det S'], [Det ], [ S'] [ ] (
, ). [Det S']
Ѡ ( the idea that he might succ-
eed " ( ), ", the fact that he was
guilty "() , 렠 ", the opportunity for him
to leave "() , ", the habit of
working hard "" "-頠
-
). [Det ] - -
. [ ] - , -
(, The Hague "-
", The Nile ""*, 젠 -
,
)2*.
, / -
, -
(20). [ S']
, ꠠ . ,
" " , ,
it , it strikes me that he had no
choice "[] , ", it surprised me
that he left "[] , ", it is obvious that
the attempt must fail "[] ,  () ", , -
NP, it^堠 ( 젠 蠠  it , -
, it -
, 18).
,
, , -
 (47).  , -
堠 "-
" .
-
蠠 :
(30) he decided on the boat
(),
he chose the boat " "
he made his decision while on the boat " , -
".
* : The Hague, The Nile,--
,
(. .),
94

/51) he decided on the boat on the train
,

he chose the boat while on the train " , ". , ⠠ (51)
, ,
, , ,
, , . ,
, ꠠ (51),
, , , on the train, he decided " " *. (, he worked at the office "
" he worked at the job "
/. /"; he laughed at ten o'clock "
" he laughed at the clown " "; he ran after dinner " " he
ran after John " "**). , , .

, , .
,

{52) (i) S > NP
(ii) > Aux^VP () ()

* . . on the boat
, (50)
(51) : 堠 ,
(50) (. .),
** : -
, -
( ), (
)-
,
. : "
" -" " (. .).

, , (v) , 堠 , (iii)
堠 (iv).

,
, (52 iii),
, (52 ii). 
, 頠 젠 (. 23) 蠠
, "-" ,
. , -
,
頠 . o
, .
, ,
⠠ (52 iv), (53) (54)27:

(53) dash into the room (V )
-
last for three hours (V - )
- 堠
remain in England (V - )
-
win - three times a week (V- )

(54) dash in England

last three times a week

96

remain into the room

win for three hours

, -
: he argued with John (about politics) "
( )", he aimed (the gun) at John " (-
) ", he talked about Greece " Π -
", he ran after John " 렠 ࠠ ", he decided on
a new course of action " " .. ,
, -
: John died in England " ⠠ ", John
played Othello in England " ", John
always runs after dinner " "
,
( (52ii)), -
V.
, , 堠 (52),
. -
,
. -
, , -
, : resemble "", have "", marry " ,
, " ( John married Mary " -
ࠠ "*, ࠠ 堠 the preacher married John and Mary "
", ,
, -
); fit ", " ( the suit fits me "
", the tailor fitted me "
()", , -
, " );
cost "", weigh ", " ( the car weig-
hed two tons " 堠 ", 堠 John weighed the let-
ter " ", ,
, ࠠ -
) . . , 堠 , " " [middle
Verbs] (Lees, 1960 a, p. 8), , , -
, 蠠 -
* ,
, ,
, -
ࠠ (. .).
91

NP, 頠 . ,
John is resembled by Bill " ", a good
book is had by John " ", John was marri-
ed by Mary " (?) ", I am fitted by the suit
" ", ten dollars is cost by this book "
", two tons is weighed by the car "
" . '. (, , John was married by
Mary " 렠 " John was mar-
ried by the preacher " ",
I was fitted by the tailor " /,
/ ", the letter was weighed by John " " ..)28.
, -
 "
", ,
. , (55)

, (58) -
,
NP NP NP:

  1. > by^
  2. NP - Aux - V - ... - NP - ... - by^- ...

( "..." ()
, , NP).

,
(, Chomsky, 1957). '-,
,
,
. ,
(56) ,
-
[NP ],
-
. -, -
-
. ad hoc
, -
蠠 ܠ ߠ 頠 Ƞ (. Chomsky,
1957, pp. 17374). -, "-
", the proposal was vehemently argued against," -
"*, the new course of action was agreed upon
* . . .
98

" " John is looked
u to by everyone " ", -
. ,
(56) . , 堠 everyone
looks up to John by passive " 젠 by "
(56) John 堠 NP, 蠠 -
⠠ John is looked up to by everyone " 젠
*" 堠 ,
John was seen by everyone " /. -
/ " 砠 everyone saw John " ". -
頠 (. Chomsky, 1955, IX) -
. ࠠ -
, V 砠 (56)
, -
"" have "", resemble "" . .
-
,  ,  V (56) -
,
젠 . , John is looked up to " " John was seen " "
, , John
젠 .
, ',  , (52ii),
, -
(56), -
젠 by^. , this
job is being worked at quite seriously "ࠠ -
" Ǡ Unspecified-Subject is working at this job quite seri-
ously "頠 -
", 堠 at this job " " ,
(52iii), the office is being
worked at " " Ǡ Unspecified-Subject is working at the
office " " ", -
at the office " " 젠 VP,
(52ii), 젠 . -
젠 , the boat was decided on "
" he chose the boat " ",
he decided while on the boat " (, )
". , 堠 , (50), -
, (50) .
堠 .
, 蠠 -
the boat was decided on by John " -
. . .
99

"*
John decided on the boat " / ",
,
(. .93 ) 蠠
. ,
,
. " ",
,  VP, a
. , -
VP -
, ,
. ,
-
, VP -
. -
-
(56), , 堠 -
"",

. , on the boat "
" V ⠠ John decided on the boat "
" ( John chose the boat "
"), -
; on the boat " " 젠 VP
John decided on the boat " " (
John decided while he was on the boat " , OH -
", , , on the boat, John deci-
ded " "), -
, (56). -
, , the boat was decided on by John "
" , ,
,  ,
,  -
;, .
(52) ,
, ⠠ 2.2 (. (11)), . ,
, , "-"
[ , S], [VP, S]. -
, ,
. 2.2,
, "-
". , , -
* ""
"": " "-"-
 " (. .).
100

, -
->.... ... ... -> ... ... ...,
. ,
.


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