.

4.

1. ۠ Ӡ ̠ Ƞ
1.1.

, -


. , -
, -
, . -
, ,
-
. ,
,
, ,
, .
-
, , -
, ⠠ -
.
, , -
, .
, , -
. , 3 2
, , , * ..
/, :
(1) (i) John found sad

(ii) John elapsed that Bill will come
( ),
(iii) John compelled

(iv) John became Bill to leave

* .. (. .).

137


(v) John persuaded great authority to Bill

, -
:
(2) (i) colorless green ideas sleep furiously

(ii) golf plays John

(iii) the boy may frighten sincerity

(iv) misery loves company

(v) they perform their leisure with diligence

(. 2.3.1 2). , (1),
, (2), -
, . , ,
-
, -
-
, :
(3) (i) revolutionary new ideas appear infrequently

(ii) John plays golf

(iii) sincerity may frighten the boy

(iv) John loves company

(v) they perform their duty with diligence

젠 (2) -
, (1). , -
, (
. Bloomfield, 1963) 蠠
,
. , , -, -

, -
. , , , , -
(1), .

 

138


, ,
.
,
, , ,
, . -
(3) ࠠ (1)
(2), .
(1),
, (2), -
, . ,

" "2.
,  , -
, " " [-
],
, , , " ", [-
]. , , -
, -
, , -
3. ,
(4) (i) the book who you read was a best seller
, ,
(ii) who you met is John
, ()
, [-
], , , -
, .
, -
, -
, []. , -
, , ,
, [],
( , (4) ).
[[+-
].., .,.[+]],, frigh-
ten "", amuse "", charm "",.... -
, , ,
the book which you read was a best seller ", -
, " 蠠 what you found was my book ", -
, ", -
(4). , , -
, ,

139


ࠠ a very frightening (amusing, charming, ...) person " (, ,...) ", , -
,
(5) (i) a very walking person appeared

(ii) a very hitting person appeared

, (4), , -, -
, , , ,
,
, -
. , ,
, , -,
, -
4.
(4) (5), ,
. -, , []
[[+ ]....---- ... (+ ]]
, -
, , -
, (4) (5)
. (2) , -
, " ",
, , , .
-, (4) (5) , "-
" ""
(.. , * ),
, - . -
(4) (5), , -
, -
. , , -
,
, .
, , -

-
; , -
, -
.
-
, 2, -
* ,
(. .).
140


, -
,
.
, , , 

,
, , .
, -
, -,
. , ї-
(59) 2 frighten "", -
, [+V, +------ NP, + [+-
]...---- ... [+ ]] . -
[+V], [+------ NP], [+[+]...----- ...
[+]], (59).
, -
- -
frighten ї.
, ,
, .
, , , -
 frighten, , ,
, , , -
, . -
, :

(6) (i) sincerity may virtue the boy

(ii) sincerity may elapse the boy

(iii) sincerity may admire the boy

, -, -
, , "
". , 堠
2, ,
,
( ) .
4.1 2 , , -
, , -
, , -
. , ,
, -, ,

141

, .
" ".
, , , -

, , : (i) -
( (6i)); (ii) -
( (6ii) (1)); (iii)
( (6iii) (2)). , , , , . , ( (4), (5))5. , , ,

1.2.
-
, , , -
(. (4), (5)). -

. -
. ,
, , -
. , boy ""
[+], a frighten ""
.. -
. , -
" "
, -
, -
, (. (4), (5)). ,
-
,
(2), , , (1), , -
蠠 . -
.
, ,
-
, , -
. ,
-
,
,
. , -
, " ", -
. -
142


.
-
.
4.3 2 -
. ,

⠠ 젠 -
( 2 3).
, -
, -
, . ,
.
, , -
, : (i)
? (ii)
, , -
?
, ,
.
,
3 2. ,
,
,
, . -
(57xiv) 2
Aux Det;
, . ,
, ,
(57xv) 2, -
. -
-
:
(7) the boy is sad

(8) the boy grew sad

(7) (57xv) 2 -
[[+] Aux^be__ ], (8)
[[+] Aux [+V]___ ] --
6. -
, -
. ,
, -

143


.. (. . 108-109). -
-
, -
. , :
(9) A>CS/[?]...______ ...[?],
[?] [?] - (
)7. , (9) -

(10) XWAVY,
=[?,...], Y = [?,...]8, W?W1[?,...]W2 ( ) V ? V1 [?,...]V2 (
). (9) (10)
(11) XWBVY,
— , , ([+],
) -
[+ ?____ ?], =[?,...] Y= [?,...]. ( , , -
, W, V, "" -
, -
.) , (9)
[+ ?________ ?], [?] -
, [], ,
[?] - , -
[?], . , , -
(57xiv) (57xv) (12) (13) :

  1. [+V]>CS/[+N]_____ (...[+N])
  2. >CS/[+N]...______

frighten
"" , , [+[+]__
[+]], sad "" [+[+ -
]]___ (7), (8).
-
, , ,
, ⠠ -
(7) (8).
,
, .
W V (10). -
-
. , -
, -
, 9.

144


, -

10. -
:;
(14) John frightened sincerity

, , frighten -
. -
, ,
, , , :
(15) (i) it is nonsense ta speak of (there is no such activity as) frigh-
tening sincerity
, ( -
, )
(ii) sincerity is not the sort of thing that can be frightened
,

(iii) one can (not) frighten sincerity
()
, -
, (14) ( (2)),
(15) .
.
, . -
(14) (15) (
2); ї, , . , , (14)
(15) " ",
. ,
, ,
. ,
nonsense "-
" speak ""
, , frighten sincerity
ї (15i iii) ,
, , , , , (15) ( (14))
11, -
-
. , , -
, " ",

 

145


-
, -
. -
,
, -, -
, , ,
, :
(16) (i) it is nonsense to speak of (there is no such activity as) elapsing
a book
, ( -
, )
(ii) elapsing a book is not an activity that can be performed
, -

(iii) one cannot elapse a book

, -
, ,
, -
.
,
堠 -
" ", , -
(. , .72).
, , (15) -

-
. ,
, (14) (15) -
, , -
-
. -

- -
,
.
-
. ,
, , -
, in toto
.  , -
, 頠 -
( ) -

146


ї , -
, , , . , , (Bever and Rosenbaum, forthcoming), ,
-

.

,

, -
. , 2 3, -
-
-
, -
. , -

, -
. , ,
, ,
. ,
. -
-
; ,
.
, , -
.
, 頠
, -
. , ( ), -
. ,
, -, ,
,
. , -
.
, -
. -,
, ,
, .
, -
. , .

 

147


1.3.

. -
, -
ї,, , , -
. -
. , ,
" " ,
;
-
, . -,
, -
, , -
. " " -
,
,
" " -
. , -
-
,
, "-
".
, ,
, -

,
. " " -
, -
12. , , -
, -
, . " " (.
Katz, 1964) , -
-
, , , -
. "",
(Bever and Rosenbaum, forthcoming). -
:
(17) (i) the man has an arm

(ii) the arm has a finger
( )
(iii) the finger has a cut
( )
:

148


(18) (i) the arm has a man

(ii) the finger has an arm

(iii) the cut has a finger

( -
, the finger has an arm attached
to it " , ", the arm has a man on
it " () " ..). -
, , , -
. , the ant
has a kidney " ", ꠠ the kidney has
an ant " " ,
, , -
堠 堠 . -
,
젠 -
.
, , , , -

, . -
,
- , -
(. 12). , -
" "
" "
(18iiii) (. -
1). .
-
,
,
, -
.
, , -
, -
, . , -
, -
. -
, , -
( ),
, -
, -
, -
. ., , 1, 4, 2, 2.2. ,

149


-
, ,
- .
, , :
(19) (i) John strikes me as pompous I regard John as pompous
-

(ii) I liked the play the play pleased me
-

(iii) John bought the book from Bill Bill sold the book to John

(iv) John struck Bill Bill received a blow at the hands of John

, -
, . -
, -
, , :
(20) (i)John is easy for us to please it is easy for us to please John

*
(ii) It was yesterday that he came he came yesterday

(20)
, -
, -
. (19)
. , (19i), -
, pompous John -
,
, ( )
. , John
strike , John regard, a strike
me , regard I. -
, ,
13. ,
( " -
") ( " ") -

* . -
: "  " "젠
" (. .).

150


" ",
.
,
.

"" -
"" "" -
(., , Paul, 1886; Jespersen, 1924; Wilson, 1926), ,
, (Wilson, 1926, pp. 119), " -
蠠 glass is elastic " ",
,
, glass -
, elastic, glass ,
glass. , glass is
elastic glass, , -
, -
, , ...
[ ]... glass .... ,
-
, ", ,
, " 蠠
, - ".
, , -,

,.
-
,
蠠 -
, , , -
, .

2.

2.1.

-
, -
D , -
( -
, , , -
, -
, , -
..)14
, -
,
, . , -

 

151


2, 3 ,  ,  -
,
-
,
, -
, . , , -

, (D, ) ...Q...
ї ( Q ,
), 堠 젠 Q
. ,
3 2, , 2, 4.3.
,
, -
-
. -
, (iv) .10315
, , 젠 , -
,
.
, :
(21) (i)


, (ii)
(ii) (D, ) [? ? ?] -
[? ?] ( =+ -
?= ),
[??_______ ?].
( 2, 3), , (21ii),
, -
.
-
frighten "" (. (58) 2) -
:
(22) (frighten, [+ V, +_____ NP, -[+N]__ [-], ...]

: [N], [ ] []; [-________________________ ], [___ NP^#^
S^ #],...; [+C[+N]____ [+]], [+[+N3__
[+]], .... , frighten
( (22) ) , , -

152


; , -
sincerity--- John "------ ", sincerity-------
"---- " 16 sincerity------ justice "----- " 17.
-
-
, , -
.
([?1F1], ..., [?nFn]) (ai=+ -) 頠 -
 ꠠ G, [?iFi], -
,
[?i+1Fi+1] i<n G. , , -
(57) 2 -

(23) (i) ([+ ], [])
(ii) ([+N], [+], [-], [ -
])
(iii) ([+N], {])18
, ,
-
19:
(24) ([?1F1], ..., [?nFn])
G, (D, )
G, [?nFn]. -
', -
[?iFi] i, l?i<n.
, -
(58) 2 boy "", :
(25) (boy, [+, + , + , ...]),
[+N], [+] 20.
[a F] 蠠
G,
([+],..., [? F]) G, -
(?=+ -). , (D, )- -
[? F], (D, )
,
( (24)) [+] . -
(57), (58) 3 2 -
. (58) -
- -
. -
, ,
[+] [-], ,
.
153



, . ,
. , ,
, .
, 堠
, 21. -
3 2
[_____ NP] [__ NP^
]. ,
[+__ NP^ ], -
[+____ NP], . , read
"" ,
resemble "", cost "", -
[___ NP] [____ NP^ ],
he read the book (carefully, with great enthusiasm) "
(, )", John resembled his
father " ", John resembled his fat-
her (carefully, with great enthusiasm) "
(, 젠 )" ..
,
. , :
(26) [+___ NP^ ]>[+__ NP],
: (D, )
D -
, [+:__ NP ], ',
[? F] ,
F ? [___ NP], a [+__NP],
, (26) . -
, -
,
. ,
, (26), ,
,
. -
, :
(27) [___+?^ ]>[+___ ?]
:
?; -
, (26).
,
(27) -

 

154


, , ?, -
.
, (27) (21), (24).
, walk "", hit "",
:
(28) (i) (walk,[+___ , ..,])
(ii) (hit, [+___ NP^ , ...])
(27) (21)
:
(29) (i) (walk, [+___ , +___ , -____ NP^ ,
(ii) {hit, [+--- N^ , +____ NP, -___ -
,------- , ...])
, walk
, , a hit -
, -
.
(27), (28) -
, " " (Hal-
le, 1959, 1959) ( -
) ࠠ 頠 -
. ,
, -
. , #
, (.. -
), [s];
, .. -
, ,
, (26),
, -
, , , (27)
.
(26), (27) 蠠 頠 -
. ࠠ , , -
,
,
.
, -
(21), (24) 蠠 蠠 頠 -
(26), (27), ;
.
.
( f ( 12iv) (14iv) -
1, 6). , , -

155


22.
, "", "".
(D, ), D, a
.
. -
, . -
, -
, -
. , , -
-
, ,
, -
, " -
", " " .. -
, -
, , -
, -
. , , --
, -
( , -
). ,
, -
" " ,
-
23. , -
蠠 , -
, , -
" " (, , 젠 /blik/)
" " ( /bnik/),
ad hoc 頠 -

(, , ) -
. , ,
, -
, , -
,
. -
" " -
. , ,
, , -
. '
,
-
. , , -
",

156


" " -
" , -
. -
, , , (
, .. ,
). , ,
. -
,
(, , , -
) , -
. , ,
, -
" " , -
, -
, , , , -
, -
. -
24. -
.

, , -
,
, -
, -
.

2.2.

-
,
. -
, . -
-
, -
, , , -
. -
"" ,
"" -
25. , Bruder "" der Bruder "-
"  , -
,
Vater "", Mutter "" ..
,
. -

 

157



+ -, , , , -
26,
- ... der Bruder ... -
(30). , Brader -
, , -
[1 ], [2 ], [2 ] [1 ] (
, (30) ).


:  Bruder
, [1 ] [1 ] 堠 -
蠠 (..
蠠 (Bruder, )) [2 ] [2 ]
. -, -
[2 ] - -
, 27,
[2 ] ,
, (. -
35 2). , [2 -
] , -
Bruder, , [2 ], -
, -
. , [1 ] -
,
, . -
(30), -
Bruder. , , -
[2 ] [ 1 ], -
. ( , , -
, /(V)n/ ,
[3 ].)
, -
-
.
, (, , -
) , -
. -
, , -
, -

158


, , , . , -
(, , -
) -
, , -
.
䠠 , -
, , -
.
( ) . , Bruder
(30), -, (31) -
("Item-and-arrangement" grammar):
(31) Bruder^1^ ^ ^


, 1 " "28.
, (31) .
(31) ,
. -
. -, ""
, -
.
- , ,
. -
-
.
, , -
(30) (31). (31) -
, , :____________ ,..
堠 ... , 蠠
. (30) 젠 -
, -
, [1 ] [2 ].
-
, , (31) -
堠 .
(30) , , -
, -
, , [+N] , , NP -
29.
, -
, , (
) 
, -
, , -

159


, (31). -

. 젠
. , (31) ,
. -
, -
, , -
. , , -
,
, .
,
-
.
頠 -
.
-
, 蠠 堠
, , -
-
. --
, -
, ,
, 30.
- , -
,

,  .
, -
, , , -
, -
, -
. , ( ) ,
, ,
(. 35 -
2). 젠 , , -
(. Postal,
1964, pp. 43f), - -
, , -
. (30), , -
, -
[], [], []
, . , -
, ;

 

160


:


...N NP.
, ,
(X, , Y, N, Z), -
NP,
[? ], [? ] [? ] , -
, ?, ? ? -
, . -
, , -
, . , (32) -
󠠠 32 ⠠ (30) [1 ], [2 ],
[2 ]. , ,
/der/.
(32)
, ,
. ,
, -
蠠 , .
, -
(32),
.
, -
, ,
.
(32)
. , -
, ,
, limp, lint, link, send, ring, -
/liNp/, /liNt/, /liNk/, /seNd/, /riNg/,
/N/=[+ ], -
.

, :



:


, (32)33. ,
(33) , [?] [? ]
[+], -


: 161


, [?], [? ], ?, ?
{+,-}. , ,
/m/ , // ///
( -
, /si #/ .. - (33)
).
(32) , -, -
, -
( . 32).
-
, , -
. , ,
, -
. 堠 -
-
, -
( ), -
, , .
, , -

. , , -
, 젠 -
.

,
, -
. -
,
. ї
, ,
. , , -
3 2,
, ;
, [ ],
ї, , -
, , -
ї. , , -
, ,
( -
, -
, 35 2), , -
( ), -
. ,
, -
. -
.
162


( 3, 1
13 . 134 ), ,
 -
, , "
": X -
Y -
, X Y .
""
. ,
-
. , ,
, (. 134). ї-
蠠 I saw the [#the man was clever#] boy "
[# #] " ,
-
, -
(. . 127-128), -
ї I saw the [#the boys were clever#] boy "
[# #] " --
. , boys "-
" ( [+ ]) -
boy "" ( [- ])
, man ""
boy. , -
.
. , -
, -
蠠 :
(34) John is more clever than Bill

-
, (35), -
. ,
(35), , -
.... (34) (35) , , -
-
ї, ї
Bill is clever " ".

 

 

 

163



(35), ( 堠 -
)
(36) John is more than [#Bill is clever#] clever
, [# #]
, ,
,
34. ,
:

(堠 ...----- ... as-as, more-than ..), 5 #, ,
4 6 ( , 4
6, 4). :
(38) John is more clever than Bill is
, ()
, -
(34).
164


, (37)
, -
.  (38)
. (34), (35),
. (39) -
(40):

  1. these men are more clever than Mary
    ,
  2. ces hommes sont plus intelligents que Marie
    ,

(39) , -
,
[ ]
[+ ] . , -
(40) -
, -
.
, -
,
, 蠠 -
ї, . -
, ꠠ , ,
, -
, -
, ,
ї. , -
(
,
ї) , ,
, -
. -
( , -
) ,
, -, -
, -
35.
-
:
(41) (i) John is a more clever man than Bill
,
(ii) The Golden Notebook is as intricate a novel as Tristram Shandy
" " ,
" "
(iii) I know several more successful lawyers than Bill
,
165


,
ї,
Bill is a man " ", "Tristram Shandy" is a novel "
"-", Bill is a lawyer " - " .
, (41iii) , ;
Bill (4li)36. (41i) (4lii)
. (4 liii).
堠 , ,
젠 successful lawyer Bill
. a lawyer, , -
, , ,
, 堠 a lawyer, -
ࠠ lawyers37 I know several [#S#] lawyers
" [#S#] ". ,


-
,
. , -,
, -
(ꠠ
, -
), . ,
They are a lawyer "蠠 ", Bill is several lawyers "
() " .., ,
.
, -
, I know several lawyers "
" 蠠 Bill is a lawyer " "
-
, ,   ces hommes sont intelligents "
" Marie est intelligente " " (. (40)). -
-
.
. -, -
, ,
-
; ,
, , -
-
, , -
.
, ,, -, , -
, ,
(. 2, 2.3.2). ,
I know several lawyers " -
166


", Bill is a lawyer "-",
;
, 堠 ,

king, find, lamp . . -

I know several lawyers, ,
, , 38.
, -
-
, , -, -
. ,

, , ,
( . 2). ,
堠 -
, .
-
-
. ,
,  , -
, .
, , -, 蠠 ,
,
, -
, , -
, . -
, -
ࠠ , 砠 ""
,
"" , .
, ,
: 젠 X  -
ࠠ Y -
 ⠠ , ࠠ 堠
ࠠ X 堠 ࠠ 堠 -
頠 Y. , -
. , -
, ,
堠 , ࠠ 堠
, , , ,
. , -
, , , ( -
), -
, ,

167


, , , ,
. ,
, , , -
.
" ".
, . , -
, 3 2 -
, , 4.3 2. --
(35) clever
, [] (..+[+]----------- ]), -
( 젠 -
堠 (57 xv) 2, (13) ).
, , John is heavi-
er than this rock " ", heavy
"" []
[-] ї, (35) ( ї
(35) , clever (35)
heavy, a Bill [+ ],....
the rock [],..., rock).
, heavy, ,
, -
: [],
[]. ,
-
(..
, [+F], -
[F] [F]. -

, -
.
, , , , -
-
[] -
, . -

(42) (i) John is as sad as the book he read yesterday
, ,
(ii) he exploits his employees more than the opportunity to please
, -

(iii) is Brazil as independent as the continuum hypothesis?
, ?

168


, '
.
, ,
. , sad ""
[] (42i) -
[] , , -
, , -
.
, (42) -
39.
, , , ,
,
.

2,3.


(.. ) -
, . ,
.
, , , -
.
, , -
. , -
, , -
their destruction of the property... " -
...", their refusal to participate... " ..." ..
, destruction "", refusal "" ..
.
destroy "", refuse "" , -
, (
) -
.
ї, they destroy
the property " ", S 40,
, , , -
, ї (43), -
41, a F1.... Fm', G1, ..., Gn -
. ,  destruction refusal
their destruction of the property ...,
their refusal to come... ( refusal
their refusal surprised 堠 " ",
, 堠 they refuse " ".) , , , -
.
, , ^destroy
destruction, ^refuse refusal ..42.

169


, , ,
堠 ,
, , ,
. , , -
, -
.
, , -
(1) 2 (sincerity may frighten John*), -
, ,
sincerity, , , -
sincere. Sincerity "-
" , refusal   their refusal surprised me " " Ƞ the
refusal surprised me " ". ,
, "NP
is" John is sincere (of manner) "
( )" , John's sincerity (of man-
ner) " ( )", 堠 sincerity (of manner),
refusal (to come) " ()" -
. sincerity NP ,
, -
NPis-sincere ,
, , -
. , ,
, , sincerity

* : (1) 2= sinerity may frighten
the boy (. .).
170

(1) 2 , -
-
.
,
horror "", horrid "-
", horrify ""; terror "", (*terrid) , terrify ""; can-
dor "", candid "",(*candify) ; telegram "",
phonograph "", gramophone "" .., , ,
frighten "" (1) 2.
- , -
, sincerity, destruction
.., . ,
.
, ,
,
. , , -
(, , ) -
, -
, , -
-
(. -
Halle and
Chomsky, 1960; Chomsky, 1962b; Chomsky and Miller, 1983; 堠 -
Halle and Chomsky, forthcoming).

, , -
, - -
ad hoc43. , , -
, , -
ꠠ , . , , -
-
, " " -
-
. , telegraph, horrify, frighten -
:
(44) (i) (tele^1,[F1, ...])
(ii) (2^ify,[G1, ....])
(iii) (3^ en [H1, ...])
-
. 堠
(45) (i) (graph, [+1, ...])
() (horr, [+2, ...]).
(iii) (fright, [+ N.+3 , ...]),

171

,
, (44). Mo
.
, i (45), .
,
,
. , , graph, scope,
phone tele scope phone pho-
no. . ,
, , -
. , ,  fright
en , 1, 2, ... (44iii) , .. -
", , frighten "" , redden ""
蠠 soften "", ,
(44), (45), -
, (44).
, .
, -
(44), (45),
. , , , -
- , -
. ,
, , -
. ,
( )
, . -
, -
.
,
, ,
. -, -
, -


,
.
,
-

172

. , ,
, 堠
, 44.
(.106
107) ,
. , -,
.
.
-
. frighten ,
, it frightens John " -
" , -
it makes John afraid " ", ,
, it makes S
" S", S John is afraid "
".
,
. , afraid "", red "", soft "-
" , happy "",
green "", tender "" *. ,
, wizen "-
", chasten " ( )"
, ( 堠 chasten
-
, ,
). -
, -
, ꠠ enrage "", clarify "". 
, ꠠ drop ", -
", grow ", ", 蠠 15
2, ,
.
"" he dropped the
ball " ", he grows corn " " ..
he caused S " 렠 ,
S", S-, the ball drops
" ", corn grows " " ..
"" , ,
.
* 젠
 젠 " ... (, -
)", (. .).

173

, 蠠 -
, ; -
,
.
, , -
, .
, ,
R , , -
R,
. ߠ , , -
, -
.
, ,
. , -
, take for granted " -
", 蠠 .
-
,
-
. ,
-
, .
, -
. take offense at "-
"* . ,
,
, -
, offense -
(. I didn't think that any offense would be taken
at that remark " ,
- "**). -
. -
"" ,
I brought the book (in, out, up, down) " (, -
, , ) "***. , , -
렠 ࠠ , -
* : " " (. .).
** . :
" , -
" (. .).
*** :
"bring"
, ( ) -
. ( ):
" (-, -, -, -, -) " (. .).

174

( look up " - (, )", bring off "", look over "").
, , -
-
. ߠ
45.
렠 look up (the record) " (-
)", bring in (the book) " ()" .., ,
, -
2, 2.3.4. , -
(, decide on the
boat choose the boat " ") -
^ ( decide
(while) on the boat " () "), -
. -

( argue with X
about Y " X Y").
decide, argue , -
, -
. -
. -
(-
, decide [on^NP], -
argue [with^NP^about^NP]). -
, 2, 4.3, ,
-
ї
, .
 , -

telescope, take for granted .. ,
decide # on, argue (#about) (#with) ..
-
,
-
.
,
, 젠  -
堠 ї ,  
, Ƞ
-
젠 젠 -
, -
.
-. .

175


, ,
^. , , ї, -
-
, 렠 ,
.
.
,
; ,
, ,
.

,
,
. -
, -
( , -
), .
- -
, ,
, . , ,
, - -
- -
.
. , -
, -
, .


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