.

ߠ ʠ 1

1. [. 10] 젠 堠
: "" versus "-
". - -
, 堠 (-
, , , -
) , -
.
堠 -
-
, . , , -
. , , ,
,
,
, , .
,
, -, 頠 ,
, -
. 򠠠 -
: () - , -
, ;
(b) - -
, , ,
, , -
; () - -

.
.
.  -
ꠠ . , , -
(Twaddell, 1935) 頠 , -
, -

. ࠠ ࠠ
,  ,

177


" , -
". ,  -
-
"" " " ( ࠠ , -
堠 , Dixon, 1953, -
"" ,
,
). ,
(, ), -
-
. , (b) -
. () -
, -
(b). , , -
( -
) , -
. , -
. -
. . Katz
(1964 ).
2. [. 10 ] -
(, Dixon, 1963; Uhlenbeck, 1963, 1964). -

. ,
,
堠 -
. , -
-
the man saw the boy " " 堠 [the
man saw] [the boy] "[ ] []", , --
, , [the man put] [it into the box] "[-
] [ ]", [the man aimed] [it at John] "[
] [ ࠠ ]", [the man persuaded] [Bill that it was unlike-
ly] "[ ] [, ]" . . -
, . , -
(. 7);
, -
, , -
, "-
". . Uhlenbeck (19S4) -
.
, -
( , -
18


, " -
"), ⠠ .

  1. [. 14] , , . ., ,
    Halle and Stevens (1962).
  2. [. 15 ] , , , -
    , : , -
    堠 Miller and Isard (1963).
  3. [. 15 ] ,
    . "
    ", "", 堠 ""
    , , ,
    " " "-
    ". , -
    , -
    "
    ". ( , ,
    -
    , -
    "" , .) -
    ⠠ , " () " -
    , ,
    ( -
    ) ,
    , , -
    , . , -
    (蠠 )
    , -
    . , 堠 "",
    " ", "" -

    . , ,
    -
    , -
    , ""
    . ., , Dixon (1963, . 101), -
    堠 -
    " ".
    "" -, , -
    ; , -
    ,

179


,
,  -
.
堠 . Katz and
Fodor (1964).
6. [. 18] ,  , -
( ) -
. , 堠 Chomsky and Miller (1963, p. 286) -
: anyone who feels that if so many more students whom we haven't actually admitted are sitting in on the course than
ones we have that the room had to be changed, then probably auditors
will have to be excluded, is likely to agree that the curriculum needs re-
vision ", , ,
, ,
, , , , -
, ,  ,
"*. 6 -
( ,
) .
, -
.
, , -, -
. -
, -
(4 ii) , , -
, .
7. [. 18 ] , 
(Yngve, 1960) -
(Harman, 1963, . 613, rule (3i)).
. , ( -
), 堠 a tall, young, handsome, intelligent man "-
"
[[[[tall young] handsome] intelligent] man] -
, , [tall [young [handsome
[intelligent man]]]]. -
- , ,
, , ,
-
. -
, ,
(, [intelligent [young man]] "( [ ]",
, [YOUNG [intelligent man]] "[ [ ]"
*. ⠠ .: " ", . 1,
1965, . 248 (. .).
180


젠 young ""),
, .
,
-,
젠 , ꠠ all the young, old, and middle-
aged voters " , "
(
. Ornan, 1964).'
[[young, old] and middle-aged], "[[., ] -
]", 蠠 [young [old and middle-aged]] "[ [
]]" .
젠 , ,
, John, Mary, and their two children ", -
" [John] [[Mary] [and their two
children]], John "" Mary and their two children
" ", -
"" 蠠 their two children " ". -
. , -
(, John, as well as Mary and her child ",
"), , , ,
.
, ,
, ,
, -
( ).
젠 , . -
,
.
. , -
, ꠠ all (none) of the blue, green, red, and (or) yellow pennants "
( ) , , () ", -
- , blue, green, red ", -
, " ( -
) green, red, and (or) yellow ",
( )" ( , -
), , 
, -
, ,
, ,
- .
, . (
old and mid-
dle-aged   young, old, and middle-aged voters 堠 green, red,
or yellow ⠠ none of the blue, green , red, or yellow pennants -
181


Mary and, their two children ⠠ John, r, and their two children; -

; , -
; , -
, - . -
, , - -
, -
.
8. <[. 19 ] (Yngve, 1960 ) -
-
(4). ,
,
,
" " ( -
, . .,
).
-
, ,
, 蠠 堠 ,
, ""
. -
, : () -
(b) -
-
, .
(), , -
, -
. . , , 蠠 ,
,
, , -
. (b), . , -
, -
, -
蠠 -
" ".
, (4iii),
(. 7) ( , ) -
,
"" .
, (4iv), 堠
(2 i), "", - .
⠠ ,
, -
182



. , .
,
, 堠 Miller and
Chomsky (1963, Part 2).
9. [. 19 ] , -
(. Dixon, 1963). ,
, -
, "", - -
. , (. 83),
, " ", , ", -
, , - N, , ,
N, (clauses)" ( , ).
, "-
". 堠 .
  堠 Chomsky (in press),

  1. [. 19 ] , -
    , Katz and Postal (1964). ,
    , ⠠ , -
    ,
    , Chomsky, Halle, and Lnkoff (l956);
    Halle (1959 a, 1959 b, 1962a); Chomsky (1962b); Chomsky and Miller (1963);
    Halle and Chomsky (1960; forthcoming).
  2. [. 20 ] ߠ ,

    ,
    . .
  3. [. 20 ] " " "-
    " , " " " " -
    . , ,  " "
    " " ,
    ,
    " " " " (

)., ,
. "-
" " "
, 頠
(. "Tiefengrammatik"
183


"Obserflachengrammatik", 1953, p. 158); -
頠 (Hockett,
1958, Chapter 29).
"underlying structure" " " "superficial
structure" " " (Postal, 1964).
-
, , -
"" - (Lancelot et al; 1660). .
Chomsky, 1964, pp. 15-16; forthcoming). -
-
, , , -

, , ⠠ -
. , (Thomas Reid,
1785) ,
, :
" , , -
, -
, -
... , ,
. -
頠 .
, -
, , . -
,
, ,
, , -
" (pp. 167-168).
, , -
" ",
" - ,
" (. 105). , ",
" (. 105); , , -
, -
. , -
: , , , .
, ,
頠 . -
, "
... -

..." (. ). , "
" "" (Descar-
tes, 1641, . 138). ' , -
184


, : , -
1769 . (pp. 179-180):
" , j'ai un livre "y ", j'ai
on diamant " ", j'ai une montre " _
", j'ai la fievre "y () -
", j'ai envie " () ", j'ai, peur "y
() ( )", j'ai un doute "y () ",
j'ai pitie " () ( )", j'ai une idee "y -
() " .. livre "", diamant "", montre "" , -
; , sante
"", fievre "", peur "", doute "",
envie "" , -
, .
j'ai une montre " " j'ai -
, ;
j'ai une idee "y " j'ai
. . J'ai une idee
je pense " ", je concois de telle ou telle maniere
" 젠 ". J'ai envie je desire
" "; j'ai la volonte "y " je veux
" " ... idee "", concept "", imagina-
tion ""
, '
."
,
"
-
" (Ryle, 1931).
13. [.26] .   , -
(10) -
(. 3);
, , (11)
-
蠠 expect. , -
(10) () , , -
, -
.
14, [. 28] ,
,

. -
,
185


砠 -
. , , "" ,
,
, , -
,
, . -
,
", , ... -
, , -
, " (Cordemoy, 1667),
, -
, . .
15. |[. 31] , (Russell, 1940, p. 33:
*
-"), -
" " -
. ,
, , , .
,
" ". ,
" " -
-
, Gestalt, , , -,
,
, , -
(,  United States " ", 젠 젠
barrier "").
LIMB, limb "",
, ,
, its LIMB is brown "
" ( its head is brown " -
") , , , -
. , , HERD,
herd "", , -
,
a cow lost a leg " " ,
the HERD lost a leg " " . .
16. [. 32 ] , (Aristotle, De Anima, 403 b) "-
" -
186


, ", ",
". .
Foot (1961), Katz (1964d).
  1. [. 32 ] " " -
    , -
    , " ".
    . Bar-Hillel (1960). -
    -
    . , , ,
    , ,
    .
  2. [. 33 ] , -
    f s. ( -
    si
    G.-, si -
    Gj. , ,
    . . , . .
    ,
    ( )
    f m .

19. [. 34 ] , -
-
, , , -
, -

,
,
. , , ,
. -
-
. , -
, -
(i) _(v) , ,;
,
. -
, , -

堠 ( -
, , ,
). ,
.
187


2. . 34] , -
. -
, ࠠ ()

( , -
, , , -
-
).
,
.
, -
(H) -(iv) ( -
-
)
. .
Lees (1957), Chomsky (1964).

  1. [. 35 ]
    . , , -
    ,  ,
    , ( -

    " "). . 8.
  2. [. 36] . 19. -
    . , ,
    , -
    ( -
    (v)) .
    , -
    D , D,
    , -
    , D, ,
    .
    .

23. [. 36 ] . 10.
24. [.41] -
, , . -
, , , -
, ,
, . -
-
, .
188


,
,
.
25. [. 46 ] ,
- . ,
, -
,
, , ,
,  ࠠ -
. 堠
, , "", , .. (nativism);
, , -
. ,

(. 26).
, ,  , -
젠 , -
,
, . , -
, ,
(Skinner, 1957).
,
. "", "-
", "" .., , -
, -
,
, - -
. ,
( )
, , -
, , -
, -
, .
, , -
"" , -
.
26. [. 47 ] , ,
"",
, -
 ,
. , (Quine,
189


1960, pp. 82-83), " -
" " "
" -
,
". , " , "
( , , -
). , -
"" -
, , -
" " ,
堠 . -
"", -, -
, 堠 , " "
; ,
(.
, , 堠 Chom-
sky, 1959 b).

  1. [. 47 ] , , -
    . ., , Lettvin et al, (1959), Hubel
    and Wiesel (1962), Frishkopf and Goldstein (1963). -
    ,
    , -
    , , -

    . , , -

    , .
  2. [. 49] ,
    . -
    젠 : "... je demeure d'accord que nous apprenons les idees
    et les veritees innees, soit en prenant garde a leur source, soit en les
    verifiant par 1' experience. Ainsi je ne saurais admettre cette proposi-
    tion, tout ce qu'on apprend n'est pas inne. Les verites des nombres sont
    en nous, et on ne laisse pas de les apprendre, soit en les tirant le leur
    source lorsqu'on les apprend par raison demonstrative (ce que fait voir
    qu'elles sont innees) soit en les eprouvant dans les exemples comme
    font les arithmeticiens vulgaires...".
  3. [. 50 ] . Chomsky (1964) -
    ,
    .
  4. [. 51 ] ,
    . -, '

190


""
, -
. , -
, 堠 ,
.. . , -
( -
Chomsky, 1956, 1962 Postal, 1964a), -
, , -
, , , , -
. ,
-
. -, "-
" ,
(b) 1 ( "" "-
" ), --
, -
, ,
. , , ,
"" "" ,
- , -

. , -
"" "",
" "
" ".
, , -
, , -
 , -
( ).
31. [.51] ,
, -
.
, -, , -
- -
.
, , -
-
. -
,
-
-
, , --
,
191


,
.
-
, -
, , .
. -
, - -
 -
, ,
, ,
,
. ,
. , -
-
. , -

.
32. [. 54] , -
"-
" , , -
(. 19) -
. , (Lenneberg, forthcoming) -
. Lenneberg
(1960)
.
, , , ,  -
 -
ࠠ ,
(. Sutherland, 1959,
1964) , -
. , -
堠 ,
,
-
.
33. [. 56 ] ,
⠠ "" . , -
, , , -
. 蠠 , -

(, -
192


, ). -
, , , ,,
 ,
. -

, , , 젠  -
, , -
, , , -
, , -
,
(
, ).
-
 堠 . -
砠 , , , ꠠ (
), 젠 젠 -
(, 蠠 , -
, -
, ). 젠
, ࠠ , , -
, -
-
.
34. [. 57 ] . . , (i) _
(iv) . 33 . ,
, -
, , .
35. [. 57] -

.
, , -
( , ,
2). ,
,  . -
蠠 . Chomsky (1963), Chomsky and Schutzenberger (1963).
36. [. 58] . Postal (1962, 1964, 1964). -
- ,
,
.  -

, , ⠠ ,
⠠ . -

193


, (Postal, 1964a), -
, - -
, , -
- . 젠 ,
蠠 - , --
, -
.
37. [. 59 ] , ,
, , .
, , , -
,
, -
. (. , -
; 1 3
, , 蠠 2.2
4).

2

  1. [.60] -
    , (2), -
    , (2ii),
    . , ,
    , .
    . ,
    ( ) -
    , , -
    .
  2. [. 62 ] -
    (, "",
    "", "", " ", "")
    , 젠 , -
    蠠 ( -
    ). , Chomsky (1957) -
    , ,
    -
    " " ( -
    , ""
    -
    "" 蠠 ""). , -
    , , , ; "G ,
    堠 D", ; D
    ⠠ ; , -
    , . . , , -

194


, , G. , -
, 堠 .
砠 -
 .
. , -
, -
堠 -

. , , ,
1822 (Leitzmann, 1908, . 84):
"
, , -
,
, ,
".

,
. -
, , --
,
,
( ),
,
. -
; , -
⠠ -
, ⠠ , -
,  , , -
,
,  .
.
, , 頠 , -
, . -
, 堠 , , -
, -ࠠ .
3. [. 63] ,
Chomsky (1955, Chapter 6). , -
堠 (Postal, 1964a).
 Chomsky and Miller
(1963, 4); Chomsky (1963, 3).
4. [. 63 ] . .20
. -
195


, -
-
.
Herman (1963),

" ".
, -
" " , ,
, " " -
 ( -
, , ⠠
, (, ),
, - , -
,
. . ). (젠 , ,

" " -
, " -
". -
-
, -
( 젠 ) .
-
( , -
젠 , .
Chomsky, 1957, Postal, 1964a) -
 - ,
. , -
⠠ , , "-
"

, ࠠ .
,
 ,

( ).
-
⠠ , -
, -
, (, ) -
.
-
, ,
- , -
196


, - ,
, -
. , John saw Bill, did Tom
see you? " , ?", John, Bill, Tom
-
,
. : -

,
, 堠 "-
" , ⠠
-
. -
. Chomsky (in press),
-
, ,
.

  1. [. 64] -
    Chomsky (1955)
    ( 7) , , -
    . -
    -
    Matthews (1964, Appendix A, 2).
    -
    (Ginsburg and Rice, 1962) 젠 (Shamir, 1960); 蠠 -
    - ,
    , 堠 , -
    ( 6, 3), , -
    ( ).
  2. [. 65 ] ,

    . , (5)

蠠 - (3), -
頠 蠠 S ࠠ sincerity (NP) Ƞ may frighten the boy
(VP), -
, (11). . 2.3.4

.
7. [. 67 ] 젠 , y, z -
, , -
X. , -
, -
.


8. [. 67 ] , -
"", "" . . -
, -
. , -
, ,
Chomsky (1955).
9. [. 70 ] ,
M , , , ->may, can,...
(51). -
. -
. , ,
, -
. , -
, -
. , ,
: XZY XZ'Y , -
A Z 蠠 Z' , -
X^Z^and^Z'^Y, Z^and^Z' (. Chomsky, 1957, 5.2, Gleitman,
1961). , , , , 젠 -
. M .
-, , -

(CM. Chomsky, Halle, and Lukoff, 1956; Halle and Chomsky, 1960,
forthcoming; Chomsky and Miller, 1963). -
,
.   , -,
.
, (,
) . ,
M , -
, . may- may
John may try " ( )" John may try " ( )"*.
10. [. 72 ] , -
,
. ,
, , ,
3
, -c (. .).
198


, ,
蠠 . .
1, 2.
11. [.73]

. Chomsky (1955, Chapter 4), -
Chomsky (1961) Miller and Chomsky (1963). ࠠ 蠠 -
(Katz, 1964a). ,
, , ,
-
, , . .
 -
.
12. [. 75 ] (-
) -
( , Harris, 1951,
(long components)), -
. -
, .
. Postal (1964).
13. [. 75 ] -
, -

, . -
. . ,
. . ,
(. Stockwell and Schachter, 1962; Schachter, 1962).
E. (Bach, 1964).
, , 堠
, .
.
, , -

.
14. [. 77 ] /s/ -
[+, -, -, + + , ], a /m/
[+, -, + , +, + ].
(18) ,
[+] (, /s/) , -
[+] (, [m]), -
19


, , 頠 -
(, // //
[+, -, + , +, +,
] ).
,
: .
15. [. 79 ] ,
-
, -
, , .
, , "bee"
(""), [+ -
1, - , -1, ...,-2, + ,,
-2 ...]., -
, ,
- . ,
, -
(. Katz and Fodor, 1963), -
. ( --
, , -
, , -
.) , 젠 ,
, , -
- , - .

, -
, .
-
, , , -
, .
, grow "" the boy grew "
" corn grows " " grow "-
" he grows corn " "
, -
, , , -
,
the window broke " ", someone broke the window "-
". . . 173. drop "",
"" price dropped " ", he dropped the ball "
", he dropped that silly pretense " -
" command "" ,
. 112 . -

. -
200


, ,
, ,
, -
, .

  1. [. 82 ] -
    (Bloomfield, 1933, . 274).
    (Sweet, 1913, . 31),
    , " ,
    - ".
  2. [.82] -
    , -
    -
    , 蠠

. , -
. , -
, -
, - -
, , -
.
6.
, , ࠠ (20) ( -
, -
) ,
. ,
4.3.
18. [. 84 ] ( -
) ,
, .
, -
. ,
-
. ,
, ^^-
, , 堠 , -
,
-
, -
,
. ,
- , , -
(, -
),
- .

201


- , ,
.
,
( -
) , ,
, , -
. 젠
.
, -
, , -
(, 젠
, I persu-
aded John of my seriousness " "
I persuaded John of N S "
N S", S , I am serious " -
", -
, N, -
NP,
).

  1. [. 85 ] , , -
    -
    -- , -
    -
    , .
    ⠠ 4.2.
  2. [. 87 ] , ,
    .
  3. [. 88 ] S' -
    . ࠠ 蠠 젠 -
    .

22. [. 89 ] , (36) "like^
" 頠 , -
..
, ,
, -
.
⠠ 3, , . -
, (40) (41)
.
23. [. 90 ] 젠

be+ Ing. ,
202


, ,
own "", understand "" know "" ( -
), -
, (
,
) , , ,
. , -
-
, 堠 (, , -
) , -
, , , -
own, understand, know . . (. I know the answer
right now " ", I know the answer
" "); ꠠ I eat the apple right now "
", I eat the apple* " "
( "" ** ⠠ ,
, ,
"" ).
24. [. 91'] ,  , -
" " (. . 77 ). -
蠠 , ,
(20)-(21), -
. -
, , (20)(21),
,
.
25. [. 92 ] , 蠠 -
. , ,
, . , -
, (44). , -
-
. -
( Harman, 1963
*
:
I am eating the apple (right now),
(. .).
** ,
-
; 蠠 I eat the
apple : " 젠 ()" (. .).

203


. 4) ,
,
, , -
.
. Π Ӡ Chomsky (in press).
26. [. 94 ] , , -
,
(, , , -
, ,
, clever Hans " " old " ").
, , -
NP (
, , I found John likable, which surprised me
very much " , "). -
, , , , (, ,
the industrious Chinese dominate the economy of Southeast Asia "-
- ").
"" - (Arnauld et al., 1662),
堠 : Jespersen (1924, Chapter 8).
, -
(, this
cannot be the England, that I know and love "
, ",
I once read a novel by a different
John Smith " - -
")*.
, , , -
.
27. [. 96 ] ,
(54) - .
. 2.3.1 -
.
, , -
John died in England " -
" (= in England, John died"()   ")
John stayed in Eng-
land " " (John lived in England "
* .
,
(. .;.
203


" - , ꠠ John resided in
England " ", .
John stayed in England 젠 -
, 젠 (52iii), , , in Eng-
land, John really lived "() -"
in England, John remained alive "() -
" , -
, (52ii), . John will surely
die on the Continent, but he may live in England " -
, ( )").
live in England " "
die in England " " (-
), Π 堠 England is lived in by many

people " 蠠 " ,
England is died in by many people " "*
- , , live in " "
reside in " " inhabit "".
. "" . 98.

28. [. 98] -
(, a good time was had by all " -
" recourse was had to a new plan "
"**), , "-
" -
(. Lees, 1960 , . 26), -
蠠 , ,
, , -
. (  -
蠠 John married Mary with no enth-
usiasm " ", ,
, John was not very enthusiastic about marrying Mary "
"
, ꠠ , , -
젠 John, cleverly, stayed away yesterday
" ", -
* -
"",
, " " - " "
(. .).
** ,

( to have a goodtime " " to
have Recourse to " () ") -
(. .).
205


John laid his plans cleverly "
". . Austin (1956)). ,
-
, -, .
, -
. , -
-
, ; ,
, -
, -
, , ,
. :
, -
( " " . 1, 4) ,
, -
. -
(
, )
-
, , ,
.
, -
, ,
. ,
John gave the lecture with great enthusiasm "
" 젠 with great enthusiasm "
" John has great enthusi-
asm " () " (, with
have ""), -
NP John ࠠ  (. 3 2.2 4). -
젠 ( , 堠
, VP) , ,
, , ( ,
, I read the book in England "
⠠ " ,  -
, I read the book while (I was) in
England "ߠ , ( ) ".
-
, , , -
.
29. [. 103 ] -
, ,
, -
[+], [-] -
206


, . , , -
 ,
, -
. -
, 
⠠ , -
. , (57) -
[__ ] , -
. ( [+N] (57 xi)).
, - -
, ,
, *
, .
,
.   젠 -
,
, .
, , -

(
, -
), , -
, proof "", desire "", belief "-
". , , -
, ,
, .
-
... that S ... "... N, S ... ",
... V that S ... "... V, S ..." -
 ࠠ .

, , , -
...proving that S... "..., 5...". -
蠠 John's proof that S " , S" -
, John has a proof
that S " , S ", -
, John's book " " -
, John has a book "
". Π Ƞ 堠 Ƞ 蠠 John has a proof that S
" , S" John proves that S " .
, S" (, , 젠 堠 John takes
a walk " " John walks "
"),  .
, ,  : " "
(. .).
207


.
, ,
(, [ ]). .
, ,
Halle
and Chomsky (forthcoming).

  1. [. 108 ] , -
    - -
    , ,
    (, ⠠ Bar-Hillel, 1954; Chomsky, 1964).
    , , , -
    , ꠠ 頠 ,
    .
    ,
    ( ) .
  2. [.108 ] ,
    , ,
    . .
  3. [. 110 ] ,
    , -
     in England is where
    I met him " ⠠ "*, -
     , ,
    NP,' ,
    .  , -
    .
    젠 ,  in England " " -
    젠 in England is where I met him "

",
-, . . [NP, S], - (-
).   , , in England " " -
, VP meet him "-
" ⠠ 頠 met him in England "-
⠠ ", -
, ⠠
, 堠 .
-蠠
-
. , , -, 堠
.
: " , " (. .}.
208


, NP - , (.
7), ࠠ
. . this
book I really enjoyed '' 堠 "
this book ! NP, 蠠 S. -
, , ,
, (
), -
⠠ .
.
, -
,
() - -
. , - -
NP, S -
, -蠠 . -
, ,, ,
. , , -
. -
, , -
NP, S
, , (. . 70
John. it was John who I saw "
/. , /"). -
, 堠 .

  1. [. 110 ] -
    , , -
    ⠠ Grammaire generale et raisonnee -
    (.  Chomsky, 1964, 1.0; forthcoming). :Ta

    , (. Har-
    ris, 1952, 1954, 1957).
    . Chomsky
    (195?), -
    , / -
    , .   Katz and Fodor (1963) Katz and Postal (1884).
  2. [. 117 ] , 
    .
    ,,
    . .
    ࠠ (Hall, 1965). , "-

: 209

V. 14-1544
4


" , ( Gleason, 1964) , - .

 

35. [. 119] , ,
,
, ,
, .
蠠 .
, he was struck by a bullet " 5
", he is easy to please " ", he frightens
easily " " " -
", . . , , strike,
please, frighten , -
. he "", him "".
, ,
, him I really like " -
", him I wood definitely try not to antagonise "  ߠ -
". , ,
, -
, .
,,
.
. Ƞ   Chomsky, forthcoming.

3

1. [.120] , -
, . -
, -
, , -
, . -

, .
, , , -
" ". 堠
. 堠 Chomsky, 1964, 2.2. -
2.2 4.
(3) ,
^ -
, ࠠ (for-to,
-ing . .).
2. [. 122 ] -,
- Chomsky (1955) . () -
210


. L
! , (-
, .. ); ,
( -
- .,
, Rosenbloom, 1950); ;
( ) , L--
; L- L'-, L'
, "" ( , -
). , * - --
. -
-
(, , , -
, , ). -
. Chomsky (1955). - .
Katz and Postal (1964).
3. [. 123 ] . Klima (1964), Katz (1964b).

-
Katz and Postal (1964). Hockett (1961) -
-
, -
, -
, .
, .
,
, , -
, ,
, ,
. , -
4.4 2, -
.
,
, -
,  " " -
, , -
, .
"-
", .
4. [. 124 ]
. Fillmore (1963)
Fraser (1963).
* - . Phrase structure " " (. .).


: 211


  1. [. 124 1 (Fillmore, 1963).
  2. [. 124 ] -
    ,
    , , -
    , . , R1
    , , ,
    R1 R2, - . -
    , .

, ,  -
, .*.
, -
. 蠠
 . . Chomsky, 1964.

  1. [. 124 ] -
    , -
    , (-
    , ).
    , -
    , ( Chomsky
    and Miller, 1963, p. 298; Chomsky and Schutzenberger, 1963, p. 133), -
    , , -

    . 9, 2 ,
    . -
    , ,
    . -
    , ,
    . , , ,
    - n n

    .
  2. [. 125 ] , ,
    . -
    堠 "" , -
    (, , -
    ), , . 66 67.
  3. [. 126 ] , , -
    ,
    . , -
    , "" -

, ,  : 1, 2 (. .).
212

. , , 蠠 , everyone in the room
knows at least two languages " -
" 蠠 at least two languages are known by everyone in the
room " "
. ,
(
-
, ) -

, -
, - ,
. -
, , (,
there are two languages that everyone in the room knows " ࠠ -
, ") , , -
. , -
. , ,
, ,
, and "",
"" ,

. . ,
32 2. ""
- 頠
. 堠 Chomsky (forthcoming).
10. [. 12? ] -

.
11. [. 127 ] , .
, XBY (堠
) -堠 ; , - XBY
, --
. (, B) . ,
ZCW ( - ), (, ) -
, (, ', ) . . -
, (1, .... n) - ,
, 1 = n , -
i, 1? i?n, i= S. ,

"" - , - -
-.
.
213

, , (. 7)
,
, -,
S > S # S #... #S, , , "".

(, , very,
very, ..., very ", .............. -
") (,
,
). CM. Matthews (1961).

  1. [.127 ] . . 111-112 . Π Ӡ Chomsky
    (1964, 1.0, forthcoming).
  2. [. 128 ] , , -
    ,
    . , (
    (Lees, 1960 a) ) , ,
    ,
    , .
    -
    ; ,
    ,
    , . -
    , -
    , -
    , ,
    , 蠠
    .
  1. [. 130 ] . Miller and Chomsky (1963),
    Schlesinger (1964), Miller and Isard (1964) Ƞ 2 1.
  2. [. 132 ] . 2.3.1 2 1 4. -
    , -
    , -
    , . -
    ,
    , ,
    , (. ; -
    , Chomsky, I957,
    ). -
    , Chomsky, 1957, , ,
    , , , -

214

( , ,
,
, , -
), , -
-
( - ) -
. , , ,

-
, .
, , . ⠠ 1 蠠 1
4.

  • [. 133 ] -
    (Fraser, forthcoming). , -
    -
    , , , ,
    Chomsky (1955, Chapter 8).
  • [. 134 ] , -
    , , . ,
    [],
    ( who, which
    that) .
    , .
  • [. 135 ]
    , -
    .

4

1, [. 137 ]
(. 2, 4.3),
; .
2. [. 139 ] , -
, , '
"c" , 蠠
, -
, " " "".
, .
. Chomsky (1961) . ,
,


: 215


, -
"".
,
( )
. -
, , -
, 頠 (-
(3)), . -
젠 -
( (1) (2)) .
, , -
, . , -
,
, (
Chomsky, 1955, 1961; Miller and Chomsky, 1963; -
) ( -
Katz, 1964a). , ,
, 蠠
.
3. [. 139 ] , , -
, , -
-
, .
, -
, ; , -
(4), , -
, .
4. [. 140 ] [+[+] ...___
... [+ ]] -ing,
, -, -
-ing (bothersome bothering, scary  scaring, imp-
ressive  impressing . .),
5. [. 142 ] -
,
. -
,
(. 2,
4.4).
. -
, , : "Me up at does /out of the floor/
quietly Stare /a poisoned mouse/ still who alive /is asking What/ have i

216


done that/ You wouldn't have" (. . )*,
, , ,
,
,
6. [. 143 ] , , -
, .

  1. [. 144] , = [e,...],
    . ,
    . , -
    -
    .
  2. [. 144] , - , []-; Y - , [?]
    .

9. [. 144 ] ,
- -
, -
.
, , (. John seems sad
" " ,
John is sad " ", -
John seems to be sad ", , "
John seems sad
, become "" , , become
),
. -
. Zierer (1964).
, , W V
(9), , ,
.

  1. [. 145 ] -
    .
  2. [. 145] , --
    , -
    "" ( ).
    , "-
    " -
    . , ,

* " / / -/- /
/ / / ". -

(. .). 217


(15) sincerity
frighten ( ).

  1. [. 148 ] -
    (Humboldt, 1836); . Chom-
    sky (1964). . Ullmann (1959) -
    . -
    ,
    - ,
    Luria and Vinogradova (1959) -
    " ".
  2. [. 150 ] (19i) -
    , , "-
    " ,
    (Harris, 1957), (Hiz, 1961) . , pompous "-
    " 젠 a friend
    "" I regard John as " ", John
    strikes me as " | 堠 " ( -
    . ). , , -
    regard strike (, ,
    --)
    . , ,
    , -
    . , -
    (
    ) , -
    -
    .

(19 i), strikes -
John, , 
.
it^S strikes me, it^S
NP, a S , John is pom-
pous " ". ,
it strikes me that John is pompous "
,  ", -
John strikes me as pompous. stri-
ke (19 i) ,
-
it struck me blind " ",

strike 頠 he struck me " ", he struck an out-
landish pose " " . . (. 15
2). -
,
?\


,
. ,
砠 (19 i). ,
John strikes as pompous, his remarks imp-
ress me as unintelligible " -
", , I regard John as pompous,
it struck me blind .. .
(19iii), (Harris, 1952, pp. 24-25),

, , -
, , -
.
,
. , -
, (19), ,
" ", " ", 堠
"" . .,
, .

  1. [. 151 ] 15 2, -
    - -
    , -
    () ꠠ -
    ,
    , .
  2. [. 152 ]
    (iv) . . 20.

, () -
*, , 젠 + (-
, ). , , /, -
, - -
, .
16. [. 153 ] sincerity frightens "
", , , , ( -
) sincerity frightens Unspecified-Object
" " . .
, , - , , -
his sincerity was frightening " -
" . , , -
, 蠠 frighten
. . - () -
(. .).

219


, John
frightens easily " " ( 堠 蠠
. the book reads easily "
" . .). . "-
" " ", . .
Unspecified-Subject frightens John easily
" ". -
, , -
,
,

  1. [. 153 ]
    ,
  2. [. 153 ] -
    , {[-], []!.
    , ![-], [+]! -
    virtue "-
    ", justice "", {[ - ],
    [-]} -
    water "", dirt "".
    , -
    , [+] table
    "", mountain "" [-] problem "", ef-
    fort "". , [] [ -
    ] ( [ ] [- ]
    ) , [--
    ] , [+-
    ]. -
    .
  1. [. 153 ]
    .
  2. [. 153] , -
    ( ) -
    ,
    . , , -
    , , -
    " " 蠠 " -
    " run "". , -
    , .
  3. [. 154 ] , , -
    . ,
    , by^

220


(堠 - , ,
, ?)
. , , -
, (,
he is said to be a rather decent fellow ", 頠 -
", , , he was shorn of all dignity
" ".

  1. [.156 ] -
    ,
    , -
    , . , -
    ,
    (. . " "), -
    -
    .
  2. [. 156 ] . Halle (1959a, 1959b, 1961, 1962, 1964). .

    1, 6, 7 , . , -
    " " (. . "-
    " " ") -
    , 1 "", "-
    " , , ,
    .
  3. [. 157 ] " -
    1' , X, -
    , ,

, -
렠 grow "", he X* dogs " X- "
he grows corn "
" (raise "", "", -, -
), , -
, corpse "" ( -
.).
25. [. 157 ] ,
, ,
, -

. -, ,
"" . -
, -
. , -
,

221


. , , .

  1. [. 158 ] -
    , [1 ] -
    , [2 ] - , [2 ] - ,
    Bruder 1 "" . -
    , ,
    "" 蠠
    .
    . , -
    (.,
    , Halle, 1957), , ,
    . ,
    , ,
    -
    . -
    (. Jakobson, 1936), "", , -
    ( -
    ), -
    .
  2. [.158 ] , -
    , N > ? (. .115), -, N >

[ ?, ] ( = + ,
-
. 25 - ).
28. [. 159 ] , -
(item-and-arrangement)
, -
"" ,
,
, , . (. -
Chomsky (1964, . 31 f).

  1. [. 159 ] , -

    , .
  2. [. 160 ] , ,
    (30), Bruder
    , , -
    .
  3. [. 160 ] -
    -

222


(. Chomsky, 1964, no-
te 6, p. 14). , , --
, ,
.
,
- (30).
, -

. -
,
-
, (, , -
).
, , , -
, ().

  1. [. 161 ]
    [+], . .
    , -
    [ +, , ? , ? ]. . -
    38 .
  2. [. 161 ] -
    Chomsky, Halle, and Lukoff (1956) Ƞ Halle and Chomsky
    (1960) . -
    (Halle, 1962b).
    . , -
    , (

). . Bever (1963), Bever and Langendoen (1963).

  1. [. 164] . Lees (1961) Smith (1961). -
    , -
    , , -
    . , this is taller than that is wide
    " , ". . Harris (1957), . 314.
  2. [. 165 ] , ,
    , , 30.

, ⠠ (40) -
. -
(Vougelas, 1647, pp. 461-462) -
, facon de parler "
", " ", , -
. , -
, , je suis plus beau que
vous " , ", , " -
223


" 堠 je suis plus bean que vous n'etes
belles " , ", -
je suis plus riche que vous " 堠 -
, "*.
36. [. 166 1 , ,
.
, (41 iii) -
I know several lawyers (who are) more successful than Bill
" ( ) -
(-), "
who are, , - : -
know a more clever man than Mary "
, " Ƞ I have never seem a heavier bo-
ok than this rock " ,
", ( ,
I know a man (who is) more clever than Mary " (, -
) , " I have never seen a book (which is) heavier
than this rock " (, ) ") ; , I ha-
ve never read a more intricate poem than "Tristram Shandy" "ߠ -
, " " -
, " " - , I
have never read a poem (which is) more intricate than "Tristram Shandy"
" (, ) ,
" ", -
, , " " - ; . .
, , , 
-
ad hoc, -
. , ,
, .
37. [.166 ] -
.
38. [.167 ]
-
. ,
* . , , ,
"" :
beau- belle, a riche " (-) -
(. .),
224

-
, . ,
Ǡ I have a [# the friend is from England #] friend "Ӡ
[# #] " -
I have a friend (who is) from
England " (, ) " .
the friend,
, , . a friend is from
England, , -
. ,
, ,
, -
,
" " ( -
).  , , , -
, ,
-
.
,
, [+] -
.

  1. [. 169 ] , sad, ,
    - ( -
    , ),
    ,
    [], , -
    the pencil is
    sad " ", ,
    the book was sad " -
    ". -
    ,
    .
  2. [. 169 ] . ,
    -
    - 蠠 -
    .
  3. [. 169 ] .
    . Lees (1960, pp. S4f), Chomsky (1964, pp. 4? f).
    Ƞ Katz and Postal (1964, pp. 120 f).

42. [. 169 ] , -

225

F1, ..., Fm - , , -
,

  • [. 171 ]
    , , , -
    Lees (1960 a, Chapter 4 ). .
    Zimmer (1964).
  • [. 173 ] . 30. , -
    -
    "". , -
    , -
    . -
    -
    .
  • [. 175 ] -
    (Harris, 1957, 4.5) "". -
    (, Bolinger, 1961)
    .
    ,
    ,
    . , -
    , -
    , ( , Chomsky,
    1964, . 54).


















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