I.

.

III. XIV.

1. XIV .

2

" "
.
, ,
.
, ;

, , ,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
.
, , ,
.
,
, .
, ,
, 1381 . ,
,
, , .
, , ,
" ", "" -
-, , :
" , , ,
". ,
,
, ,
. -
,
. ,
, .

, . "
" " " (" ").
" " (Pierce the Plowman's rede)
1394 . ;
1553 . , , -
. , ,
,
"" -. ,
(1850 ).
, , (Pater noster)
(Ave Maria), ""
(Credo), ,
. -,
, .
, ,
, o ""
, -
. :
,
, - .
, , "
, ";
. .
? ? ,
; .
.
-
XIV .
,
.

, ,
,
,
.
,
, .
,
.
,
, .
,
,
,
.
,
.
, , ,
- , ,
- .
, ,
, - , -
: ", ".

,
. ,
,
, .
.
; ,
, - , , .
.
"", ,
.
- .

,
,
. XIV
XV .
; ,
; , , , . . ,
, ,
, -.
, - .
- ,
, .
.
.
(Cotswold), ,
,
(St. Mary of Ampney) , ,
, , 1400 .
;
,
; , , ,
. , ,
, , , , . -
;
, .
" ",
.
" "
, " " (The Plowman's tale)
XVI ., "
" , " " (The Complaint of the Plowman).
XIV .,
II. (. )
, 1395 ., , " ".
, ,
(1065-1066 .), ,
, .
"" :
. , ,
, " ",
"" , ,
, ""
(estrif, debat).
; ,
- .
, ,
, , , . .

, .
,
. .
, .
, ;
, ( , IV),
.
, .
,
.

- ,
.
XVI ., ,
. 1550 . , ,
"" ; ,
1561 . , (Owen Rogers),
, ,
" ".
""
. , , ,
(1568
.); (Steel
glass, 1576 .), " " (1579 .),
" , " (1607 .).
,
. ,
("A Merry Knack to know a Knave", 1592
.), : -
,
. ,
, .
: "- :
... , ! ,
, ..."
, , ,
" " (The Guile's Horn Book,
1609 .).
.
(Apology for Smectymnuus, 1642 .)
"" " "
.
,
, ,
" ". " " , ,
" ", ,
,
, ""
.


















sitemap:
. , , .