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1. Source: CCC, Tsutaya, http://nooper.co.jp/showcase/gallery.php?s=4 amp;l=en (24 January 2002).
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3. Howard Rheingold, Tools for Thought: The History and Future of Mind Expanding Technology (New York: Simon amp; Schuster, 1985).
4. Howard Rheingold, The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier (Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley, 1993).
5. Arturo Bariuad, Text Messaging Becomes a Menace in the Philippines, Straits Times, 3 March 2001.
6. Lisa Takeuchi Cullen, Dialing for Dollars, Time Magazine 157 (22), 4 June 2001, http://www.timeinc.net/time/interac tive/business/money_np.html (4 February 2002). See also: Kevin Wer bach, Location Based Computing: Wherever You Go, There You Are, Release 1.0 18 (6), June 2000, http://releasel.edventure.com/ abstracts.cfm?Counter=8096700 (4 February 2002).
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9. See.: eBay, http://www.ebay.com; Epinions, http://www.epinions.com; Slashdot, http://www.slashdot.org; Plastic, http://www.plastic.com.
10. J. Carey, Space, Time and Communications: A Tribute to Harold Innis, in Communication as Culture (New York: Routledge, 1989), 12.

1

1. Epigraph: Tom Standage, The Internet, Untethered, Economist, 11 October 2001, http://www.economist.com/surveys/ displaystoiy.cfm?story_id=811934. October 2001.
2. Raritan River Akita Club Inc. (RRACI), Hachiko, http:// www.nylana.org/RRACI/hachiko.htm (28 January 2002).
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14. Rob Guth, Japan's NTT Goes Global with New Company, E Business World, 29 June 1999, http://www.e commerceworld.com/ idgns/1999/06/29/JapansNTTGoesGlobalWithNew.shtml (24 February 2002). See also: Forbes International 500, http://www.forbes.com/inter national/ (24 February 2002).
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41. Torres, 4 Sme, Txtng is Lyf.
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53. Ling and Yttri, Hyper Coordination via Mobile Phones in Norway.
54. Mark Aakhus and James Katz, eds., Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk and Public Performance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
55. Erving Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Garden City, N. Y: Doubleday, 1959).
56. Ling and Yttri, Hyper Coordination via Mobile Phones in Norway, 159.
57. Garfalk, Kids on the Move.
58. Alex S. Taylor and Richard Harper, Talking 'Activity': Young People and Mobile Phones, paper presented at the CHI 2001 (Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems), Seattle, 31 March 5 April 2001, http://www.es.colorado.edu/~palen/chi_workshop/papers/ TaylorHarper.pdf (24 February 2002).
59. Ling and Yttri, Hyper Coordination via Mobile Phones in Norway.
60. Alexandra Weilenmann and Catrine Larsson, Local Use and Sharing of Mobile Phones, in Wireless World: Social and Interactional Aspects of the Mobile Age, ed. B. Brown et al. (London: Springer Verlag, 2001), 95.
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62. Leslie Haddon, The Social Consequences of Mobile Telephony: Framing Questions, in The Social Consequences of Mobile Telephony The Proceedings from a Seminar About Society, Mobile Telephony and Children, Telenor R amp;D N 38/2000, eds. Rich Ling and Kristin Trane, 26 June 2000, 2 6, http://www.telenor.no/fou/prosjekter/Fremtidens_Brukere/ seminarer/mobilpresentasjoner/Proceedings%20_FoU%20notat_.pdf (31 January 2002).
63. Erving Goffman, Alienation from Interaction, in Communication and Culture, ed. Alfred G. Smith (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966).
64. Plant, On the Mobile.
65. Leysia Palen, Marilyn Salzman, and Ed Youngs, Discovery and Integration of Mobile Communications in Everyday Life, Personal and Ubiquitous Computing Journal, vol. 5 (2001): 109 122, http://www.cs.colorado.edu/%7Epalen/Papers/cscwPalen.pdf (5 February 2002).

2

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59. Smith, Mapping Social Cyberspaces, 12.
60. Lawrence Lessig, The Future of Ideas (New York: Random House, 2001).
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62. Cable TV Lobby, Including Comcast, Tells FCC: Give Us a Closed Broadband Net, Center for Digital Democracy, 15 February 2002, http://www.democraticmedia.org/news/washingtonwatch/ca bleletter.html (25 February 2002). See also: Cable Industry FCC Lobbying Document, Center for Digital Democracy, 8 February 2002, http:// www.democraticmedia.org/resources/filings/cableFCCLobbyingDocu ment.pdf (25 February 2002).
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67. Gordon E. Moore, Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits, Electronics 38, 8 (19 April 1965): 114 117.
68. Moore's Law, Intel Corporation, http://www.intel.com/research/silicon/mooreslaw.htm (21 December 2001).
69. Scott Kirsner, The Legend of Bob Metcalfe, Wired 6.11, November 1998, http://www.wired.eom/wired/archive//6.11/metcalfe.html? person=bob_metcalfe amp;topic_set=wiredpeople (27 January 2002).
70. David P. Reed, That Sneaky Exponential: Beyond Metcalfe's Law to the Power of Community Building, originally appeared in Context Magazine, Spring 1999 (by permission of DiamondCluster International, Inc. 1999) http://www.contextmag.com/archives/199903/ digitalstrategyreedslaw.asp (25 January 2002).
71. Francis Fukuyama, Trust. The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity (New York: Free Press, 1995).
72. Reed, That Sneaky Exponential, 1999.

3

1. Epigraph: Cory Doctorow, My Date with the Gnomes of San Jose, Mindjack, 15 October 2000. http://www.mindjack.com/feature/ p2p.html. (25 January 2002).
2. Charlene Anderson, [email protected] and the Planetary Society: A Reminiscence and a Hope for the Future, May 2000, http:// www.planetary.org/UPDATES/seti/[email protected]_and_planetary_society.html (20 January 2002). See also: Roving Mouse, [email protected] Stats, http:// www.roving mouse.com/setiathome/ (25 January 2002).
3. Robert Wright, Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny (New York: Vintage, 2000).
4. David P. Reed, That Sneaky Exponential: Beyond Metcalfe's Law to the Power of Community Building, Context Magazine, Spring 1999 (by permission of DiamondCluster International, Inc. 1999) http:.//www.contextmag.com/archives/199903/digitalstrategyreedslaw.asp (1 February 2002).
5. John F. Shoch and Jon A. Hupp, Notes on the 'Worm' Programs Some Early Experience with a Distributed Computation, Xerox PARC, September 1980.
6. Ibid., 1. See also: John Branner, Shockwave Rider (New York: Del Rey, 1975), 249 252.
7. Miron Livny and Udi Manber, Distributed Computation Via Active Messages, IEEE Transactions on Computers 34, 12 (1985): 1185 1190.
8. Deepest Computation in History for a Yes/No Answer, Technical News Release, 29 September 1999, http://www.perfsci.com/ F24release.html (1 February 2002).
9. GIMPS Finds First Million Digit Prime, Stakes Claim to $50,000 EFF Award, 30 June 1999, http://www.mersenne.org/6972593.htm (30 January 2002).
10. Distributed Computing for Global Climate Research at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, http://www.climate dynamics.rl.ac.uk/ index.html (25 January 2002).
11. United Devices, http://www.ud.com/ (1 February 2002).
12. The United Devices Cancer Research Program, http://www.intel.com/cure/united.htm (23 December 2001).
13. Henry Norr, Idle Computer Time Can Fight Cancer, San Francisco Chronicle, 4 April 2001, Bl.
14. Paul Marks, Anthrax Screensaver Finds Promising New Drugs, NewScientist.com, 19 February 2002, http://www.newscientist.com/ news/news.jsp?id=ns99991953 (19 February 2002).
15. Google Compute, http://toolbar. google.com/dc/faq_dc.html (6 March 2002).
16. Harry McCracken, The Digital Century, PC World, December 1999, http://www.pcworld.com/resource/article.asp?aid=13531 (5 February 2002).
17. Matt Richtel, With Napster Down, Its Audience Fans Out, New York Times, 20 July 2001, http://www.nytimes.com/2001/07/20/ college/coll20MUSI.html (2 February 2002); Ron Harris, Technology: Copyright Laws at Stake in Napster Case, Nando Times, 2 March 2001, http://archive.nandotimes.eom/technology/story/0,1643,500458967500698582503788773 0,00.html (5 February 2002).
18. Dan Bricklin, The Cornucopia of the Commons, in Peer to Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, ed. Andy Oram (Sebastopol, Calif: O'Reilly and Associates, 2001).
19. Ashlee Vance, Napster Serenades Songwriters, Ready to End Lawsuit, Unlimited Net, 26 September 2001, http://www.unlimited.net.nz/unlimited/unlimited.nsf/ArchiveByAuthor/3CC3423C3EA87267CC256AD2006D2BA9?OpenDocument (5 February 2002).
20. Napster Offers $1 Billion to Settle Suit, CNN.com, 21 February 2001, http://www.cnn.com/2001/LAW/02/20/napster.settlement.03/ (5 February 2002).
21. Gene Kan [1977 2002], Gnutella, in Peer to Peer Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, ed. Andy Oram (Sebastopol, Calif.: O'Reilly and Associates, 2001); What Is Gnutella? Gnutella News, http://www.gnutellanews.com/information/what_is_gnutella.shtml (2 February 2002).
22. Nullsoft, Inc., http://www.nullsoft.com/ (29 January 2002).
23. David E. Weekly, Client as Server: The New Model, Freshmeat. net, 16 April 2000, http://freshmeat.net/articles/view/155/ (2 February 2002).
24. Gnutella News.
25. Kelly Truelove, Gnutella and the Transient Web, OpenP2P.com, 22 March 2001, http://www.openp2p.eom/pub/a/p2p/2001/03/22/traelove.html (17 January 2002).
26. Eytan Adar and Bernardo A. Huberman, Free Riding on Gnutella, First Monday 5, 10 (2000), http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue5_ 10/adar/index.html (2 February 2002).
27. Mojo Nation, http://www.mojonation.net/ (23 January 2002).
28. Steven Johnson, The Taste Test, Feed, 8 May 2001, http:// www.feedmag.com/templates/default.php3?a_id=1703 (23 December 2001).
29. Lou Gerstner, addressing the eBusiness Conference Expo in New York City, 12 December 2000, http://www.ibm.com/lvg/1212.phtml (2 February 2002).
30. Michelle Delio, The Grid Draws Its Battle Lines, Wired News, 20 February 2002, http://www.wired.com/news/technol ogy/0,1282,50538,00.html (29 March 2002).
31. Ian Foster, Internet Computing and the Emerging Grid, Nature, 7 December 2000, http://www.nature.com/nature/webmatters/grid/ grid.html (23 November 2001).
32. John Markoff, The Soul of the Ultimate Machine, New York Times, 12 December 2000, http://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/10/ technology/10SMAR.html (24 January 2002).
33. Steve Lohr, IBM Making a Commitment to Next Phase of the Internet, New York Times, 2 August 2001, http://www.nytimes. com/2001/08/02/technology/02BLUE.html
34. Ann Harrison, The Crime of Distributed Computing, Register, 12 December 2001, http://www.theregister.co.Uk/content/6/23477.html (1 February 2002).
35. Steven Bonisteel, Criminal Charges Settled in Distributed Com puting Case, Newsbytes, 17 January 2002, http://www.newsbytes.com/ news/02/173751.html.
36. Lawrence Lessig, The Future of Ideas (New York: Random House 2001).
4

1. Epigraph: Mark Weiser, The Computer for the 21st Century, Scientific American, September 1991, p. 94 104. http://www.ubiq.corn/ hypertext/weiser/SciAmDraft3.html, 2 February 2002.
2. Howard Rheingold, Tools for Thought (New York: Simon amp; Schuster, 1985).
3. Joel Garreau, You Are So Here, Washington Post, 19 August 2001: COl, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp dyn/articles/A33379 2001Augl9.html (22 January 2002).
4. Sensor Networks for Healthcare, the Environment, and Homeland Defense, http://www.soe.ucsd.edu/Research_Review/agenda.html (1 January 2002).
5. Saikat Chatterjee, Netravali Sees a Networked Sphere in Ten Years, Business Times, The Times of India, New Delhi, 9 June 2000.
6. M. Weiser, R. Gold, and J. S. Brown, The Origins of Ubiquitous Computing Research at PARC in the Late 1980s, IBM Systems Journal 38, 4 (1999): 693 696, http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/384/ weiser.html (2 February 2002).
7. Mark Weiser, Ubiquitous Computing, http://www.ubiq.com/ hypertext/weiser/UbiHome.html (29 January 2002).
8. Weiser, The Computer for the 21st Century.
9. The Trojan Room Coffee Machine, http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/ coffee/eoffee.html (22 January 2002).
10. Weiser, The Computer for the 21st Century.
11. Howard Rheingold, Virtual Reality (New York: Summit, 1991).
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17. Alex P. Pentland, Smart Rooms, Scientific American 274 (April 1996): 68 76, http://www.sciam.com/0496issue/0496pentland.html (11 December 2001).
18. Elisa Batista, Big Blue's Big Brother Lab, Wired News, 24 April 2001, http://www.wired.eom/news/technology/0,1282,43186,00.htrnl (24 February 2002).
19. J. C. Spohrer, Information in Places, IBM Systems Journal 38, 4 (1996), http://www.research.ibm.com/jouraal/sj/384/spohrer.html (24 November 2001).
20. Ivan E. Sutherland, Sketchpad: A Man Machine Graphical Communication System, Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, Detroit, Michigan, May 1963, and MIT Lincoln Laboratory Technical Report #296, January 1963.
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22. S. Feiner, B. Maclntyre, and D. Seligmann, Knowledge Based Augmented Reality, Communications of the ACM 36 (July 1993): 52 62.
23. Spohrer, Information in Places.
24. Per Persson and Fredrik Espinoza, GeoNotes: Social Enhancement of Physical Space, ERCIM News 47, October 2001, http://www.ercim.org/ publication/Ercirn_News/enw47/persson.html (2 February 2002).
25. Jun Rekimoto, Yuji Ayatsuka, and Kazutera Hayashi, Augment able Reality: Situated Communication through Physical and Digital Spaces, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Wearable Computing, 1998, http://www.csl.sony.co.jp/person/rekimoto/papers/ iswc98.pdf (22 December 2001).
26. Ismail Haritaoglu, InfoScope: Link from Real World to Digital Information Space, in Ubicomp 2001: Ubiquitous Computing. Third International Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, September 30 October 2, 2001: Proceedings, ed. Gregory Abowd, Barry Bromitt, and Steven A. Shafer, 247 255. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2201, Springer 2001, http:// link.springer.de/link/service/series/0558/papers/2201/22010247.pdf
27. Salil Pradhan et al, Websigns: Hyperlinking Physical Locations to the Web, IEEE Computer 34 (August 2001): 42 46.
28. Steven Feiner et al., A Touring Machine: Prototyping 3D Mobile Augmented Reality Systems for Exploring the Urban Environment, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Wearable Computers (1997): 74 81, http://www.computer.org/conferen/proceed/8192/ pdf/81920074.pdf (5 February 2002).
29. Scott Fisher, Environmental Media: Linking Virtual Environments to the Physical World, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Mixed Reality, Yokohama, Japan, March 2001, http:// www.wem.sfc.keio.ac.jp/wern/RawMedia/Fisher.pdf (3 February 2002).
30. David S. Bennahum, Be Here Now, Wired 9.11, November 2001, http://www.wired.eom/wired/archive/9.11/location.html (3 February 2002).
31. Garreau, You Are So Here.
32. Direction Finding CDMA Handset from KDDI, 27 February 2002, http://www.cellular news.com/story/5932.shtml (6 March 2002).
33. Universal Design of Digital City Project Overview, http//www.digitalcity.jst.go.jp/about e.html (3 February 2002).
34. Risto Linturi, Marja Riitta Koivunen, and Jari Sulkanen, Helsinki Arena 2000 Augmenting a Real City to a Virtual One, Digital Cities 2000 83 96, http://www.linturi.fi/HelsinkiArena2000/ (11 January 2001).
35. The Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), http://www.citris.berkeley.edu/about_citris.html (3 February 2002).
36. Wade Roush, Networking the Infrastructure, Technology Review, December 2001, http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/roushl201.asp (11 December 2001).
37. Russ Adams, Bar Code History Page, BarCode 1, 16 (March 2001), http://www.adamsl.com/pub/rassadam/history.html (3 February 2002); See also: The Origins of a Bar Code, Uniform Code Council, 2002, http://www.uc council.org/about_ucc/uc_bar_code_origin.html (11 January 2002).
38. Charlie Schmidt, Beyond the Bar Code, Technology Review, March 2001, http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/schmidt0301. asp (6 January 2002).
39. Barpoint, http://www.barpoint.com (3 February 2002).
40. Organic Transistors and the Death of the Bar Code, Berkeley Engineering Lab Votes 2 (February March 2002), http://www.coe.berkeley.edu/labnotes/0202/barcode.html (29 March 2002).
41. Auto ID Center, http://www.autoidcenter.org/main.asp (29 March 2002).
42. Junko Yoshida, Euro Bank Notes to Embed RFID Chips by 2005, Times, 19 December 2001, http://www.eet.com/story/OEG20011219S0016 (29 January 2002).
43. Wes Vernon, Latest Privacy Nightmare: Money That Tracks You, NewsMax.com, 28 July 2001, http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles /2001/7/27/212324.shtml (3 February 2002).
44. Will Knight, Tiny Radio Chip Gives Paper an ID, New Scientist, 4 July 2001, http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns9999967 (3 February 2002); Hitachi Announces Worlds Smallest RFID 1, the mu chip, 5 July 2001, http://www.hitachi.com/products/electronic/ semiconductorcomponent/elecrfid/ (5 February 2002).
45. Kris Pister, Joe Kahn, and Bernhard Boser, Smart Dust: Autonomous Sensing and Communication in a Cubic Millimeter, Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, http://www. bsac.EECS.Berkeley.EDU/~pister/ SmartDust/ (2 February 2002).
46. Duncan Graham Rowe, Dust Bugs, New Scientist, 28 August 1999, http://www. bsac.eecs.berkeley.edu/~warneke/research/press/ newscientist.html (30 January 2002).
47. Jack Smith, Computer in a Speck of Dust, ABCNEWS.com, 22 November 1999, http://www.rense.com/politics5/minitech_p.htm (3 February 2002).
48. Jun Rekimoto, NaviCam: A Magnifying Glass Approach to Augmented Reality Systems, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 6, 4 (1997): 339 412.
49. Jun Rekimoto, http://www.csl.sony.co.jp/person/rekimoto.html (3 February 2002).
50. Neil Gershenfeld, When Things Start to Think (New York: Henry Holt, 1999).
51. William Butera, Programming a Paintable Computer, (Ph. D. diss, MIT, 2002), http://web.media.mit.edu/~vmb/papers/buteraphd.pdf (July 2002).
52. Gershenfeld, When Things Start to Think, 10.
53. Steve Mann and Hal Niedzviecki, Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable Computer (Mississauga: Doubleday Canada, 2001), 30.
54. A Brief History of Wearable Computing, http://wearables.www.media.mit.edu/projects/wearables/lizzy/timeliiie.html#1989 (3 February 2002).
55. J. Peter Bade, G. Q. Maguire Jr., and David F Bantz, The IBM/ Columbia Student Electronic Notebook Project, 29 June 1990.
56. A Brief History of Wearable Computing.
57. The Wearable Group at Carnegie Mellon, http://www.wearablegroup.org/ (6 March 2002). See also: VuMan, http://www. 2.cs.cmu.edu/~wearable/vuman.html (6 March 2002).
58. Mann and Niedzviecki, Cyborg, 42.
59. Cyberman, directed by Peter Lynch, http://cbc.ca/cyberman/ (29 March 2002).
60. Thad Starrier, Wearable Computing and Context Awareness (Ph. D. diss., MIT, 1999), 64.
61. Mann and Niedzviecki, Cyborg, 71.
62. Steve Mann, Smart Clothing: The Shift to Wearable Computing, Proceedings of CACM 39 (August 1996): 23 24.
63. The MIThril Vision, http://www.media.mit.edu/wearables/ mithril/vision.html (21 January 2002).
64. Scott Stemberger, New Body Art: Wearable Wireless Devices, IBM DeveloperWorks, January 2002, http://www. 106.ibm.com/ developerworks/wireless/library/wi wear.html?t=gr,p=Wearem Wireless (3 February 2002).
65. Wearable Internet Appliance, http://www.hitachi.co.jp/Prod/ vims/wia/eng/main.html (3 February 2002).
66. Timex Watch to Incorporate Speedpass Technology, Associated Press, 28 February 2002, http://www.usatoday.com/life/cyber/tech/ review/2002/2/28/timexspeedpass.htm (6 March 2002).

5

1. Epigraph: Bruce Sterling, Distraction, A Novel (New York: Bantam, 1998).
2. Upendra Shardanand and Pattie Maes, Social Information Filtering Algorithms for Automating Word of Mouth, Proceedings of ACM CHF95 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1995, http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi95/Electronic/documnts/papers/us_bdy.htm (9 February 2002).
3. Cameron Barrett, Online Community Technologies and Concepts, Camworld.com, December 2001, http://www.camworld.com/ essays/communities.html (9 February 2002).
4. Howard Rheingold, The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier (Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley, 1993).
5. Howard Rheingold, Virtual Communities, Whole Earth Review 61 (Winter 1988): 14.
6. David Goldberg et al., Using Collaborative Filtering to Weave an Information Tapestry, Communications of the ACM 35 (December 1992): 61 70.
7. Usenet FAQ Archive, ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet by hierar chy/ (9 February 2002).
8. Paul Resnick et al., GroupLens: An Open Architecture for Collaborative Filtering of Netnews, Proceedings of ACM 1994 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1994, 175 186, http:// www.si.umich.edu/~presnick/papers/cscw94/ (9 February 2002).
9. The Reputations Research Network, http://databases.si.umich. edu/reputations/ (14 January 2002).
10. MovieLens, http://movielens.umn.edu/ (9 February 2002).
11. Hui Guo, Thomas Kreifelts, and Angi Voss, SOaP: Social Filtering through Social Agents, report of ECRIM Workshop Proceedings, No. 98/W001 of the 5th DELOS Workshop on Filtering and Collaborative Filtering, 291 298, http://www.ercim.org/publication/ws proceedings/ DELOS5/guo.pdf (10 February 2002).
12. Steven Johnson, Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities, and Software (New York: Scribner, 2001).
13. Epinions, http://www.epinions.com (9 February 2002).
14. Mark Frauenfelder, Revenge of the Know It Ails, Wired 8.07, July 2000, http://www.wired.eom/wired/archive/8.07/egoboo.html (31 January 2002).
15. Katie Hafner, Web Sites Begin to Self Organize, New York Times, 18 January 2001, http://www.nytimes.com/2001/01/18/technol ogy/18SELF.html (24 January 2002).
16. Everything2, http://www.everything2.com/ (9 February 2002).
17. Blogger, http://www.blogger.com (5 February 2002).
18. Farhad Manjoo, Blah, Blah, Blah, and Blog, Wired News, 18 February 2002, http://www.wired.eom/news/print/0,1294,50443,00. htrnl (24 February 2002).
19. Henry Jenkins, Digital Renaissance, Technology Review, March 2002, http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/jenkins0302.asp (24 February 2002).
20. Slashdot FAQ, http://slashdot.org/faq/ (9 February 2002).
21. eBay http://pages.ebay.com/community/aboutebay/overview/index.html (5 February 2002).
22. Peter Kollock, The Production of Trust in Online Markets, in Advances in Group Processes 16, ed. E. J. Lawler et al. (Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1999), http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/soc/faculty/ kollock/papers/online_trust.htm (9 February 2002).
23. Crime Low on eBay Site, Marin Independent Journal, 29 December 2000, B4, B6.
24. Judith H. Dobryzynski, In Online Auctions, Rings of Bidders, New York Times, 2 June 2000, http://www.nytimes.com/library/ tech/00/06/biztech/articles/02ebay.html (11 January 2002).
25. Peter Kollock, The Production of Trust in Online Markets, 99.
26. Paul Resnick and Richard Zeckhauser, Trust Among Strangers in Internet Transactions: Empirical Analysis of eBay's Reputation System, Working Paper for the NBER Workshop on Empirical Studies of Electronic Commerce, 5 February 2001, http://www.si. umich.edu/ ~presnick/papers/ebayNBER/index.html (10 February 2002).
27. Paul Resnick et al., Reputation Systems, Communications of the ACM, 43 (December 2000), http://www.si. umich.edu/~presnick/ papers/cacmOO/reputations.pdf (9 February 2002).
28. Reputation Bibliography, The Reputations Research Network, http://databases.si.umich.edu/reputations/bib/bib.html (23 October 2001).
29. Richard Lethin, Reputation, Peer to Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, ed. Andy Oram (Sebastopol, Calif: O'Reilly and Associates, 2001).
30. William Stallings, How to Certify Public Keys Without a Central Authority, Byte, February 1995, http://www.byte.com/art/9502/secl3/ art4.htm (9 February 2002).
31. Chrysanthos Dellarocas, Building Trust On Line: The Design of Reliable Reputation Reporting Mechanisms for Online Trading Communities, [email protected], July 2001, http://ebusiness.mit.edu/research/ papers/101%20Dellarocas,%20Trust%20Management.pdf (19 September 2001).
32. Kirsten Hawkes, Why Hunter Gatherers Work: An Ancient Version of the Problem of Public Goods, Current Anthropology 34, 4 (1993): 341 361.
33. Josh Whitfield, Men Fish for Compliments, Nature 9 (April 2001), http://www.nature.com/nsu/010412/010412 l.html (9 February 2002).
34. G. Pollock and L. A. Dugatkin, Reciprocity and the Evolution of Reputation, Journal of Theoretical Biology 159 (1992): 25 37.
35. Robin Dunbar, Why Gossip Is Good for You, New Scientist 21 November 1992.
36. Karl Sigmund, Ernst Fehr, and Martin A. Nowak, The Economics of Fair Play, Scientific American, January 2002, 83 87.
37. Ernst Fehr and Simon Gachter, Altruistic Punishment in Humans, Nature 415 (2002): 137 140.
38. Karl Sigmund, Christoph Hauert, and Martin A. Nowak, Reward and Punishment in Minigames, paper presented at conference in Steyr, Austria, July 6 7, 2001, http://www.umass.edu/preferen/mpapers/ Sigmund.pdf (9 February 2002).
39. Natalie Angier, The Urge to Punish Cheats: Not Just Human, but Selfless, New York Times, 22 January 2002, http://www.nytimes. com/2002/01/022/science/social/22CHEA.html (23 January 2002).
40. Marc A. Smith, Mapping Social Cyberspaces: Measures and Maps of Usenet, a Computer Mediated Social Space (Ph. D. diss., UCLA, 2001), 157 158.

6

1. Ben Charny, MobileStar Lays Off Staff, Seeks Sale, CNET News.com, 10 October 2001, http://news.com.com/2100 1033 274214. html?legacy=cnet (21 February 2002).
2. Mark Ashurst, Africa: Now, a 'Quiet Revolution': Mobile Phones Leapfrog an Obstacle to Development, Newsweek International, 27 August 2001. See also: Stefan Lehmann, Wireless Brings the World to Africa, Connect World Africa 2001, October 2001, http://www.connect world.com/docs/articles/cwafricaOl/lehmann_radio_cwafrica01.asp (22 February 2002).
3. Rob Flickenger, 802. lib Tips, Tricks, and Facts, O'Reilly Network, 2 March 2001, http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/wire less/2001/03/02/802. llb_facts.html (21 Febraary 2002).
4. Communications Law: An Overview, Legal Information Institute (Cornell Law School), http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/com munications.html (21 February 2002). See also: Communications Act Of 1934, Federal Communications Commission, http://www.fcc.gov/ Reports/1934new.pdf (21 February 2002).
5. Jessica Litman, Digital Copyright (New York: Prometheus Books, 2001).
6. R. H. Coase, The Federal Communications Commission, Journal of Law and Economics 2 (1959): 10.
7. Lawrence Lessig, The Internet Under Siege, Foreign Policy, November December 2001, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/ issue_novdec_2001/lessig.html (21 February 2002).
8. Kevin Maney, Wireless Technology Could Sting Cellular Networks, USA Today, 1 August 2001, http://www.usatoday.com/life/cyber/ ccarch/2001 08 01maney.htm (23 February 2002).
9. Leander Kahney, Free the Wireless Net! Wired News, 20 September 2000, http://www.wired.eom/news/print/0,1294,38803,00.html (21 February 2002).
10. Kahney, Free the Wireless Net!
11. Peter Meyers, Motley Crew Beams No Cost Broadband to New York: High Speed, Freed, Village Voice, 15 21 August 2001, http:// www.villagevoice.com/issues/0133/meyers.php (22 February 2002).
12. Erika Jonietz, Unwiring the Web, Technology Review, December 2001, http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/innovationll201.asp (22 February 2002).
13. Jonietz, Unwiring the Web.
14. Peter Meyers, In a Pinch, Wi Fi Fills the Gap, New York Times, 4 October 2001, http://www.nytimes.com/2001/10/04/technology/ circuits/04ACCE.html?ex=100 (23 February 2002).
15. John Markoff, The Corner Internet Network vs. the Cellular Giants, New York Times, 4 March 2002, http://www.nytimes. com/2002/03/04/technology/04MESH.html (6 March 2002).
16. Michael Behar, The Broadband Militia, Washington Monthly, March 2002, http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2001/ 0203.behar.html (6 March 2002).
17. Rob Flickenger, Building Wireless Community Networks Implementing the Wireless Web (Sebastopol, Calif: O'Reilly Associates, 2001), http://www.oreillynet.eom/pub/a/wireless/2001/03/06/recipe.html (21 February 2002).
18. Ben Charny, EarthLink Founder Takes to the Air, CNET News.com, 19 December 2001, http://news.cnet.com/news/0 1004 200 8237110.html (21 February 2002).
19. Asia at the Forefront of Wireless LAN Industry, Wireless World Forum, 1 February 2002, http://www.wirelessworldforum.com/w2fnewsll530.html (21 February 2002).
20. Ephraim Schwartz, IBM Hints at Taking Wi Fi Access National, Infoworld, 10 June 2002, http://www.idg.net/go. cgi?id=697400
21. John Edwards, LANs Without Lines, CIO Magazine, 1 April 2001, http://www.cio.com/archive/040101/et_content.html (11 February 2002). See also: Wireless Bares its Bluetooth at Comdex, USA Today, 15 November 2001, http://www.usatoday.com/life/cyber/wireless/2001/ ll/15/comdex bluetooth.htm (24 February 2002).
22. Bob Brewin, UPS to Deploy Bluetooth, Wireless LAN Network, CNN.com, 24 July 2001, http://www.cnn.com/2001/TECH/industry/07/24/ups.bluetooth.idg/ (23 February 2002).
23. Ephraim Schwartz, Fearless Forecasts, Infoworld.corn 21 December 2001, http://www.infoworld.com/articles/op/xml/0l/i2/24/011224opwireless.xml (23 February 2002).
24. Microsoft chairman Bill Gates at the Microsoft Professional Developers Conference, 23 October 2001, reported by David Isenberg in Smart Letter #68, 17 March 2002, http://isen.com/archives/020317.html (29 March 2002).
25. Kevin Poulsen, War Driving by the Bay, The Register, 13 April 2001, http://www.theregister.co.Uk/content/8/18285.html (21 February 2002).
26. Meyers, Motley Crew Beams No Cost Broadband.
27. Michelle Delio, Wireless Networks in Big Trouble, Wired News, 20 August 2001. http://www.wired.com/news/wireless/0,1382,46l87,00.html (27 December 2001).
28. Paul Festa, Free Wireless Net Access for the Masses, CNET Netos.com, 26 September 2001, http://news.cnet.com/news/ 0 1004 200 7301549.html?tag= tp_pr (11 October 2001).
29. RF Radiation and Electromagnetic Field Safety, http:// www.arrl.org/news/rfsafety/hbkrf.html (29 March 2002).
30. Howard Rheingold, Tools for Thought (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985), http://www.rheingold.com/texts/tft/index.html (23 February 2002).
31. Howard Rheingold, The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier (Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley, 1993).
32. Lawrence Lessig, The Future of Ideas (New York: Random House, 2001), 80.
33. Anna Couey, The Birth of Spread Spectrum: How 'The Bad Boy of Music' and 'The Most Beautiful Girl in the World' Catalyzed a Wireless Revolution In 1941, MicroTimes 166, 23 June 1997, http:// www.sirius.be/lamarr.htm (23 February 2002). See also: Ashley Craddock, Privacy Implications of Hedy Lamarr's Idea, Wired News, 11 March 1997, http://www.wired.eom/news/politics/0,1283,2507,00.html (14 October 2001).
34. Chris Beaumont, Hedy Lamarr, George Antheil, and the Secret Communications System Patent, http://www.ncafe.com/chris/pat2/ index.html (23 February 2002).
35. Peter H. Dana, Global Positioning System Overview, 1 May 2000, http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps_f.html (23 February 2002).
36. Brent Hurtig, Broadband Cowboy, Wired 10.01, January 2002, http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/10.01/hendricks_pr.html (23 February 2002).
37. Nobuo Ikeda, The Spectrum as Commons: Digital Wireless Technologies and the Radio Policy, RIETI Discussion Paper Series 02 E 002, March 2002 http://www.rieti.go.jp/jp/publications/dp/02e002.pdf (29 March 2002).
38. AN MSI Tribal College Wireless Project Overview, http:// \\ww.anmsi.org/cornmittees/internet_corm/wireless_net.asp (18 July 2001).
39. HPWREN Collaborates with Palomar College and SCTCA's Tribal Digital Village: Computer Science Class Includes Multicast Technology Experiments, High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network (HPWREN), 4 January 2002, http://hpwren.ucsd. edu/news/020104.html (20 February 2002).
40. Kade L. Twist, Native Networking Trends: Wireless Broadband Networks, Digital Beat, 20 September 2001, http://www.benton.org/ DigitalBeat/db092001.html (23 February 2002).
41. Robert X. Cringely, The 100 Mile Per Gallon Carburetor: How Ultra Wide Band May (or May Not) Change the World, The Pulpit, 24 January 2002, http://www.pbs.org/cringely/pulpit/pulpit20020124. html (29 January 2002).
42. Tim Shepard, Decentralized Channel Management in Scalable Multihop Spread Spectrum Packet Radio Networks (Ph. D. diss., MIT, 1995), ftp://ftp.lcs.mitedu/pub/lcs pubs/tr.outbox/MIT LCS TR 670.ps.qz (23 February 2002).
43. W. Brian Arthur, Increasing Returns and Path Dependence in the Economy (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994).
44. A Radio on Every Chip in 10 Years, The Register, 4 March 2002, http://www.theregister.co.Uk/content/3/24267.html (6 March 2002).
45. Steve Gillmor, Man in the White Suit, InfoWorld.com, 4 January 2002, http://www.infoworld.com/articles/op/xml/02/01/07/ 020107opcurve.xml (24 January 2002).
46. MeshNetworks Receives Experimental License from FCC Enabling Demonstration of its Mobile Broadband Network Technology, http://www.meshnetworks.com/pages/newsroom/press_releases/ release_01_09_02.htm (23 February 2002).
47. Nokia Introduces First of Its Kind Wireless Broadband Solution at SUPERCOMM 2000, 7 June 2000, http://press.nokia.com/ PR/200006/782980_ 5.html (29 January 2002).
48. Sam Joseph, When Population Density is a Plus, Japan, Inc, June 2001, http://www.japaninc.com/mag/comp/2001/06/ jun01_filter__pop.html (23 February 2002).
49. Cybiko, Inc., http://www.cybiko.com/ (23 January 2002). See also: Cybla.com, http://www.cybla.com/main.shtml (23 February 2002).
50. Sam Joseph, P2P: The Japanese Angle, Japan Inc, April 2001, http://www.japaninc.net/print.php?articleID=112 (21 December 2001).
51. Jaap Haartsen, Bluetooth: The Universal Radio Interface for Ad Hoc, Wireless Connectivity, Ericsson Review 3, 1998, http:// www.ericsson.com/about/publications/review/1998_03/articlel4.shtml (14 December 2001).
52. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), http://www.bluetooth.com/sig/about.asp (23 February 2002).
53. Brewin, UPS to Deploy Bluetooth.
54. Guy Kewney, Bluetooth Will Coexist with WLANs, Says Forrester, ZDNET UK News, 22 October 2001, http://news.zdnet.co.uk/ story/0t269 s2097796,00.html (10 November 2001).
55. Hurtig, Broadband Cowboy.
56. David S. Isenberg, The Dawn of the Stupid Network, ACM Networker 2.1, February/March 1998, 24 31, http://www.isen.coni/ papers/Dawnstupid.html (29 March 2002).
57. GNU Radio, http://www.gnu.org/software/gnuradio/gnuradio.html (29 March 2002).
58. Yochai Benkler, Overcoming Agoraphobia: Building the Commons of the Digitally Networked Environment, Harvard Journal of Law and Technology 287, 1998, http://www.law.nyu.edu/benklery/ agoraphobia.pdf (18 November 2001).
59. Kevin Werbach, Open Spectrum: The Paradise of the Commons, Release 1.0, 19, 10 (November 2001), http://releasel.edventure.com/ abstracts.cfm?Counter=5423494 (23 February 2002).
60. Quentin Hardy, The Great Wi Fi Hope, Forbes, 18 March 2002, http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2002/0318/056.html (29 March 2002).
61. Werbach, Open Spectrum.
62. Joseph A. Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy (1942; , New York: Harper, 1975), 82 85. . , , / . . . . , . . , . . . .: , 1995. . 127.
63. Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince, 2nd ed. (London and New York: W. W. Norton, 1992), 17. [ . .: . . : , 1998. . 68.
64. Lessig, The Future of Ideas, 230.

7

1. Epigraph: Vincente Rafael, The Cell Phone and the Crowd: Messianic Politics in Recent Philippine History, 13 June 2001. http:// communication.ucsd.edu/people/f__rafael.cellphone.html.
2. Michael Bociurkiw, Revolution by Cell Phone, Forbes, 10 September 2001, http://www.forbes.com/asap/2001/0910/028.html (1 March 2002).
3. Paul de Armond, Black Flag Over Seattle, Albion Monitor 72, March 2000, http://www.monitor.net/monitor/seattlewto/index.html (1 March 2002).
4. Alexander MacLeod, Call to Picket Finds New Ring in Britain's Fuel Crisis, Christian Science Monitor, 19 September 2000. See also: Chris Marsden, Britain's Labour Government and Trade Union Leaders Unite to Crush Fuel Tax Protest, World Socialist Web Site, 15 September 2000, http://www.wsws.org/articles/2000/sep2000/fuel sl5.shtml (1 March 2002).
5. Steve Mann and Hal Niedzviecki, Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable Computer (Mississauga: Dou bleday Canada, 2001), 177 178.
6. Critical Mass, http://www.critical mass.org/ (6 March 2002).
7. Anne Torres, 4 SME, Txtng is Lyf, TheFeature com, 18 April 2001, http://www.thefeature.com (1 March 2002).
8. Bociurkiw, Revolution by Cell Phone.
9. Rafael, The Cell Phone and the Crowd.
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8

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2. Epigraph: Robert Wright, Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny (New York: Vintage, 2000).
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