. . ..

24. , (., ., ., ., ., .)
1.

. . , , ( ), - , "" . 63 " ". , "" (.), " ".
, "" , .
, , : " ", , , .
- , , "".

2.
50- - 60- . - , , . - , .. - .
, , 50-60- . , , 1941-1945 . , - ,
, , . , , , , , - . , , , , , , , .
, , - ( ) .
- , 60- . . " ?" [1]. , : " " , " ". , , , 1964-1965 . " " [2].
, , , . , .
. . , , , 1963-1966 . .. [3].
, , , , . (= ) - , - .., .. .., : , . , , .
.. 2730 , . 60- . .
, , . "" , . . , ( 6- 5- ).
, , 3- , (, ) . , , , , . , .
, , , . , ( ) , .
( , 30- ) , , , 64, . , , "": "" .
, , .., , . , . ,
, (7,5 ) , . , , .. 60- . , - [4], , , .
60- . , , , , - , () , . , , / .
1972 . . .. " " [5J. , , ( , ) - ,
. . 1965-1968 . . 70- ., - .
, () , - . : , ( , ) . , , , () .
(, , , , .). : -, (" "), - - . , , .
, , . , , -, , , , , . - .
( ) ( : " - "" "). (, ). ( , 60- . ) , : 2/3 1/4 , .
, , (, , ), , , . 60- . "" , ( ) , .
" " : " : ?". . , , , - , .
, ( - -, - - ) . . , , .. . , . , , , . , - . - . .
, . - . , ( - , ) : , , . , .
, , 65.
70-80- . , [6], [7]. . , "" - , . , 60- - 70- . " " , . ( .. [8]).
, ( ) ( ) , , , . -, ( ) , . , , , , (, 1985 . ).
- - , , , - , , - , "" . ( ), .

3. "" (1968-1994)

50- . - , [1, 2, 3]. : ) ; ) ; ) .
. , .. 20- . [4].
50- - 60- . (1958 .), , [8].
" " , , . 60- . . .., , , , "" , .
"" : (. .); , - (.)66, , - , - .. ( .. ..).
"" 60- . , . : "-I" (1968-1969) - " "; "-II" (1978-1979) - ""; "-III" (1988-1989) - ""; "-III 1/2" (1993-1994) - "" - [9, 10, 11].
: , .
"-1" - . : - , ; ; , ; , . , , .
: ) ; ) ( ) ; ) ; ) , ; ) . , , , "".
. (1969-1970 .); , .
"-II" : ) , , ; ) ; ) , , .
"-II" : " ", "-I"; " ", ; " " ; "", ; " " .
" " , , , . . , .
, - . , . . , : , , - , . , , [12].
"-III", "", , . " ", " " "". - , . - , 67 [14].
.
-, "case study" , - . ; , , "" , .
-, 1989 . " " - . 1989 . , .
-, , "" . . .
1989 . ("-III") , , "-III-1/2" - : , "" . " ", , ?
, , . "-III-1/2"68, , , , , : .
:
- , , - : ;
- , ; : ;
- - ; , . , , (, ; ).
, , .

4. (70-90- )

, , . 70- . - , , - [47, . 18].
, , , , , , , . , : . [3], . - [6, 7, 8], ., . [46] . , " , " [47, . 10-11].
, , , , [52]. .. , , , , "" [. 54, . 27-28; 30, . 17-18 .].
: .., .. . - , , , , , , , .. [24], [45, . 68], , , - " " [24].
, , - , .., , [. 27; . 36, . 296; . 39. . 272; . 40, . 35; . 45, . 279 .].
. , " ", "" / , , , , . , ( ) .
"" "" , - - : , .. , .
" " (.). ( ) , , , : , , [12]. , . , , , , , .. [25; 31, . 157-171; 32, . 78-89].
, [20].
, 90- ., (. .), - , , , , , , , [36].
" ", 1975- 1978 . .-.
: , , - - . 14 , ; ; ; . ( , , , ) ( ). , [.: 7, . 93-96; 48].
, , .
, 70- . . , , , , .. , () () : (., .) .- [6, 28J.
.. "" ( .). - ., ., ., . [44, . 6-103] - , , , , "" , ( , , ), " " " , " [44, . 11]. , . , (-, , ) " , , , , , , " [50, . 10].
" " (., ., ., ., , , .).
(1981-1982) .
, , , , , . , . , 20- ., , , - , - , " ", , , , . [ .: 16, . 10-13; 41, . 4-10; 51, . 136-154].
, , , " " (). [41].
? ? :
- , - -;
- , , .. ;
- , , ;
- "" , . 80- . : , , , [41, . 56-58, 93-95, 146-153].
1986-1987 ., .. "". "" , [14, 35, 43].
, () (1989), [15].
1990 . " " , [17, 32].
, 1989 ., " " .. [42]69.
? , , , . , , - , , . , .
- , , " ". , , , . , , , . " ?", - ", ?", , .., .
[18].

5. .

- - , , , , , , , , - . , .
, , , , , . , .
. , , . [25, . 14].
- - .. ... , [22, 32]. , [4]. , , .
, 20-30- ., : , . . : , , , .
, , , , , ; , ..[10, . 13-14]. (.. [34], .. [33], .. [35]) (. [44], . [52]).
70-80- . . , , , , , , . , 2 , 20 , .
. : , [6]; "MONIKA" () - . ( ) [48].
, , - , , , [51].
. (, ), , 70- . , , . . .
, , , .
. . , " ", [3, . 90; 17, . 29; 21, . 124], , , " , , , " [24, . 48]. , , "".
, . , . .. " " [2, . 13].
, A.M., .. .., " , . " [16, . 5].
- , , - "" [20, . 174]. - , . - - , "" "" .
, () . "" , . " " [37, . 13-14].
, . , , - , , [11, 30, 43]. , "" , . .
, - , . - , . [15].
, , , - [1, 24] [5]. -, .
. , , : , ; ; .
.
(-, , - - ) , . [15, 18, . 137-147; 23; 28, . 173-201; 30, . 100-151].
, _ ,
V- . V- , , , . , , , : - -, - [7].
V- , , [45] ..
V- . , , , , V- .
, , , "" .
- . ( 246 [46]), .
, . , , , . , () , .
, , . , (, ) . - , - , .
- - 70- . "Health Promotion" ( ). , . , [19, . 132-133].
. - .
- 1969 . [39]. " - " [40], (1982) .. [1], .. [2], [1], . [24], .. [1].
1984 . (.., .., ..). (), , , [30, 31]. . , (-) , - .
( ) , , (, - ); ( ). : ( ) - , , " " - [49].

. , () , , . [18]. , , , , , [50].
. - , .
. - - . , - . , , .
, .
. , , "" - , . , , .
6.
: - ; , , ( ), ( "" ), - .
. ( ., ., , ), , : " ?". , , . (. ) - .
, , - , , . , , - .


2

1 Dumazedier J. Vers civilisation de la loisir? Paris, 1962.
2. ( ) // . 1964, 10; . - // . 1964, 10; . // . 1964, 12; . // , 1965, 6, .
3. . : . .: , 1967. . : .. . .: , 1964; . // . 1965, 4; .. : . . . . .: , 1966.
4. .., .. : . , 1970; .., .. . .: , 1972; .. . , 1973; .. . .: , 1974; / . . ... , 1974; .. - . .: , 1975; .. (1965-1986) // . 1991, 3 .
5. .., .. : : . .: , 1972.
6. .., .., .. : , , . .: , 1977; , : 1960-1980- / . ... .: , 1990 .
7. .., . . . .: , 1983; .. // .. ( 60-70- ). .: , 1985; .. .., .. . .: , 1990 .
8. .. . // . 1969, 7; .., .., .. // . 1980, 4.

3

1. .., .. // . .IV. . .: , 1959.
2. .., .. - // : . .: , 1959. . IV.
3. .., .. - // : . .: , 1959. . IV.
4. . . : . .: - , 1928.
5. .., .., .. // . .: , 1964.
6. .. // . .: , 1994.
7. . . // . .: , 1994.
8. .. .. .: , 1965.
9. / . .. .. .: , 1985.
10. , , , ( ) / . .. ... .: , 1977.
11. : / . . .., ... .: , 1988.
12. : / . . .., ... .: , 1991.
13. Peoples well-being in the USSR: trend and prospects. Moscow: Nauka, 1989.
14. - , : "-III" / . .. ... .: , 1992.

4

1. - .. . .: , 1991.
2. .. ( ). .: , 1980.
3. .. - // . 1981, 2.
4. .. . .: , 1986.
5. .. //
6. - .. // . 1980. 2.
7. - .. , // / . . ... .: , 1983.
8. - .. : . .: , 1980.
9. .. . ., 1979.
10. .. . .: , 1989.
11. .. : . .: , 1978.
12. .. .: , 1986.
13. .. // . 1991, 13.
14. .. // . 1990, 2.
15. .. : // - . 1991, 1.
16. .. // / . . .. . -: -, 1987.
17. .. / ... . .: , 1992.
18. .., .. . .: , 1994.
19. .., .., .. : , , . .: , 1977.
20. .. . .: , 1992.
21. .. . .: , 1981.
22. .. : . .: , 1976.
23. .. // / . . ... .: , 1996.
24. / . . .., ... .: , 1988.
25. . . // . 1984, 2.
26. . . // . 1981, 1.
27. .. . . .
28. / . . .. ... : , . -, 1980.
29. : / . . .., .. . .: , 1988.
30. : - / . . .., ... : , 1980.
31. : (, , ) / . . ... .: , 1992.
32. / . . ... .: , 1992.
33. : ( : , ) / . . ... .: , 1985.
34. : , , / . . ... : , 1989.
35. / . . ... .: , 1987.
36 .., .. ( 1917-1995) // . 1996, 6.
37. .. " " . .: , 1977.
38. / . . .. , 1979.
39. .. . .: , 1983.
40. .. . .: , 1987.
41. : , / . . .. ... .: , 1984.
42. : 90- / . . ... .: , 1993.
43. / . . ... .: , 1988.
44. : / . . ... .: , 1980.
45. : / . . .., .. . : , 1982.
46. : / . . ... .: , 1979.
47. / .., .., .. .; .: .. . .: , 1984.
48. / . . ..-. .: , 1980.
49. / . . .., ... .: , 1984.
50. / . .., ... .: , 1984.
51. / . . .. ... .: , 1985.
52. .. : - . .: , 1977.
53. Cm. : / . ... .: , 1980.
54. .. : . . . .: , 1975.
55. .. : . .: , 1983.
56. .. - . .: , 1979.
57. .. . .: , 1983.
58. .., .. , , . .: , 1977.
59 .. // . 1983, 12.

5

1. .., .., .. : " ". , 1982
2. .. . .: , 1984.
3 .. - . .: , 1979.
4. .. - 1896-1900 . .: . . , 1906.
5. .. - . ., 1987.
6. . . : . .... . . . ., 1985.
7. / . ... .. ., 1980.
8. : : : : . : , 1984.
9. / . . ... .: , 1975.
10. .. : . ., 1983.
11. .. // / . . ... .: , 1989.
12. .. // / . . ... .: , 1987.
13. .. // 70 / . . ... .: , 1988.
14. .., .. // . .: , 1989.
15. .. // . 1984, .
16. .., .., .. . , 1981.
17. .. "" : . .: , 1988.
18. -. . 3. . ., 1993. 1.
19. -. / . . ... .: , 1996. 2.
20. .., .. // : / . . .., ... .: , 1991.
21. .. - // / . . ... .: , 1987.
22. .. 1883-1902: . .: . , 1912. . IV.
23. .. // . . 1983. 9.
24. .. - " " // / . . ... .: . 1987.
25. .., .. - . .: , 1988.
26. .. . . . . .-., 1952. . 6.
27. - // . . . 732. : , 1988.
28. : / . . .., .., .: , 1991.
29. , , . ., 1984.
30. / . . .., .: , 1993.
31. . .: , 1989.
32. . 1878-1882. ., 1890.
33. A.M. // . , 1980.
34. .., .. // . 1971, 3.
35. .., .., .. - , . ., 1984.
36. - - / . .., .: , 1986.
37. .. // - . .: , 1989.
38. / . . .., .: , 1986.
39. .. . ., 1960.
40. - / . ... .: , 1975.
41. .. // . ., 1983. 1.
42. . . // / . . ... .: , 1987.
43. . . // / . . ... : , 1989.
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53. Waaler H.T. Height, Weight and Morality. The Norwegion Experience. Rapport. 1984, 4.

25. (.)
1.
( , environment - ) , - 1920- . ., . [25, . 256-257, 395-396, 411-413]. 90- . , 1992 . " ".
, - , , , . : , , 70-80- ., , . , , . .
, , . - . , , (.. 1985 .).
- " " . "" - " ". , .
- " " - " " . , , , " ", , - , , - , .
- "" . . , - .
- , . , , - "" , . , , , , .
, - ("-", " ", " ") , . , .

2.

" " . 60- . , , . , ( ) ( ) (. .., .. .. [4, 15, 16]). [27], "" .
- . , , 20 , , [18]. ., ., . . [13, 68] .
, . , .
" ". , - (, ). , , , , "", "". ., ., . . , (. ) " " [53, 56, 83].
, : [24], [22], [10], [69], [30] ., , . , 1980- . , . , , , "-" [8, 19]. , , . , . " " - [37]. , 15 . . [57], [51].
, , - . : , - . , .. , , , , , ( ) . [48, 51]. . [5].
, , " ", , , . - , , , , , , - - , , - [26].
, 1960-- 1980- . , , . . , , . . [57], ; " ", , , .

3.

- . , .
, - , . - , - . [7].
" " - " , " [17] "", , , . , . .., , " ", " " [19, . 229].
70-80- . - " " [1, 8], , . - , . , , , - "" . , (..), , , . , "" "". "" - [2].
, : , - , "", , - "". , , -, . : - .
[57], , [51], . [47, 51, 79].
/ , . . , "" , , , .
, " ", . , - . - . , .. , .. . , , ; "" .
. , "" , . . , "", , - , , "" ; " ", . : - . - , , , , "" [47, 79].
. , " "", "" , , " [42].

4.

- . "". - - (., .); - , , (., ., .); - (.).
. . 1989 ., , . . , , . - , , . , - [6]. , , [13].
. . ( , , ), "" . : -, -, , -, [18]. , . , , - , [13, 18].
. . , "", , , , . , " ", , . , " ", , , . . , "", [6]. . ., . [58], , , , - , , , [12].
, . , , - - .
: ? , . - , . - " " , , . - " " : . , , . , , , .
, " " [80]. . - , ( ) , . " ", . , XIX XX ., . , , . " ", , , , [86].

5.

. , [53, 56, 83]. .
, ( , , ). , " " ( , , " ", , , , ), . , , (. ., ., ., . [14, 20, 36, 40, 41]).
, , . , , . - , , , , , , . , "- " [74]. . 80- . , [85].
(), . , "", " " , , , .. , . , ., "" , , , "" [62].
60- . , ( " " ). 70- . " " (, , ), . "" . , , . ., , . [9].
"", 1979 ., . : , , , [53, 56].
, 10 - . . , , , " ", , . .
, "" .
(-, - ) "" ( , , ), . , . , - , , ( ). . . , - , [83].
, "" , . , . "" ( ) .
, - - . : 1) ( ), , , [39]; 2) , [32, 65, 80].
, , [54]. . , ., - ., ., .-, . ., , , . , [28, 29]. , - , .

6.

. 60- . - -, , [72]. 70- . , . , , , [6, 44]. : , , , - , (. ., . [63, 84]).
. , ( " "). , , . , . . , , , , .
: - , . , . , , , ( , ), , ( , ). , , . , , .
. [49, 75]. "-1" - , , .. , . , . "-2" - , , . , . , - . "-3", "" - , , .
, , : , , , ; , ; ; (, ) ; , , ; " " - , ; " " () [80].
() . , . , (1958-1982 .), (1989-1991 .) ( 1992 .) . " " [43]. ., , " " , : (60-70- .) - , ; (80- .) - , , ; (90- .) - . , , , , ( , , , ), - . [31].
, - , . - , 30- .
. . , , , [33, 35, 64, 76, 78].
( ) - (" , - "). - . - [86]. - , , , . - - [31]. () . - , , . , , . " ". , , . . - , . , , .
- - " , ". , " ". , .. , , "" " ", . , , , . . , . , , . , , , [64, 76, 78]
, , . ., ., ., ., : ; , ; , . , - - [31, 33, 35, 42, 43, 47, 80].
, - -. " " . , , , , (, , ) . , , " ", , , . " " : , " " (-) " ", . . " ", 1990-1992 . : . (, , ..). . , [48, 50, 76, 78].
, , 90- . , , , . , ., . . , , , [33, 35, 38, 52, 64, 76, 78].

7.

. " " .
" " , , : , , "" "" " - " " - -".
.
" + + " - . , "" ( 1988-1989 .) 8 % 14 . " " - , . " " - (), . " " - . "" "", : , , , (, , , ).
"" "" . ( - , - , , ), . "", , -. . "", , . "" , , "" , . "" - , , , . "" - , , , , , , , .
. "" , , , . "" , - , , . "" , . : - , - , , [77]. , , , "" [76, 78].
(-) 1989-1990 . " " 70- ., , . 1986 . . . . , , . ( - ) , , , - . " , - ., - , , . , , , , - " [52]. , " , ... " [21].
1989 . 300 , 15 % . [81]. . , , [3, 34]. , . ., , , : " ".
[32, 33, 35, 43, 65, 76, 78, 86], . , - " ", . , .
- . ., , . , 1990-1993 . , , . , , : , , . [66].
: , () ; [71].
. , - , - . ; - , , , . ; . , . . , , - . - , . . , . , . , (, ). - , . : , , , , . . - .
, , ( ), , . - [35, 76, 79].
, [31, 42, 80, 86]. - ( ), , , , . , , , 1993 . , . .
90- . , , . , . "". , , , , , , , . - , , . , , .
. . . , . , , , , , [50, 65, 76, 78].
- . , , ., . ., "" "" , .. , , , ( , ), ( , , , , ) [31, 64, 76, 78].
" " . , 1980- ., , -, . . 1993 . [31, 60]. , .
, , , , , . , . , . ., [61]. , , , , , "" , . , [76, 78].
, , "" - . 250 : ; , ; - ; , .. , [46].

8.

. , , , , , . , " ". , , .. - , . , , - " ", . . [55, 70].
, , . , , - .
, - , , . , , : , , . - . . , .. , .
, , , , .. , , [59]. , , , - . - .
, , - " ", , - . : - , - , - . - " " [45, 51a]; ., . , [11, 23]. " ", .

1. - .. : . .: , 1978.
2. .. : . ., 1991. . 1.
3. .. (- 1989). ., 1990.
4. .., .., .. , - // . 1969, 2.
5. . . : , 1991.
6. .. // . 1984, 3-4.
7. .. : . .: , 1977. . 2.
8. .. "-": . .: , 1976.
9. . - . .: , 1984.
10. / . ., ... .: , 1980.
11. .., .. . .: , , , 1992.
12. ., , : , // : / . . . . ., 1990. . .
13. ., . , : // / . . . . .. 1990. . I.
14. .. // , / . ... .: , 1972.
15. .. - - // , 1967, 4.
16. .., .. // . 1975, 3.
17. . . , 1986.
18. / . .. .. , 1987.
19. .. , , : . .: , 1982.
20. ., ., . - . , 1985.
21. . // -. 1993, 1.
22. : / . .. .: , 1981.
23. , / . .. .: , . 1993.
24. / . . ... .: , 1978.
25. : (). .: , 1990.
26. ., . - // . 1982, 2.
27. : ( .. ..). .: , 1966.
28. . // : . 1993. . 3.
29. . // : . 1993. . 2.
30. .. . .: , 1977.
31. . : // . 1992, 1-2.
32. .. : 1989-1991 // 80-90- / . ... ., 1991.
33. ., // . 1992, 12.
34. .. ( 1989 .). ., 1990.
35. .. : . ... . . . ., 1994.
36. . : // . , 1988.
37. .. // / . ., ., .. .: , 1975.
38. . . // / . . ... ., 1990. . II.
39. , , / . ., ., .. , 1986.
40. , , . , 1989.
41. , , . , 1979.
42. .. // " : . ., 1994
43. . : ( ) // : . .: -, 1992.
44. . // . 1978, 3.
45. .. // . 1994, 1
46. .. // . 1994, 4.
47. .. : // . 1994, 3.
48. .. : . .: , 1975.
49. .. : // . 1991,
50. .. : // . 1994, 10.
51. .. : . ., 1984.
51. .. : . ., 1996.
52. . // -, 1994, 1.
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