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ABA VII

KOMMHM XPCTAHCTBO

1

Bopoc o ooe oya pe ocoeo xpcacy peye ocooo paccope. Heppo paeoe ooee oya o co pe e ec ee cyaoe, oo pae cao cyoc oycecoo pocoepa. Koycecoe e ocyapco ec aypa pocoepa. Koycec cpo ec pa a, e ocyapco oaapo, acoo, o peye pyeoo eca c. Koy oae oe a ce ep oee ceo a epo paocay, y ee copeco po. Koyc coey ocy ae o oa ec apeoy . Koy, e a coaa ccea, a a pe, aaec paee co pe oee ceo xpcaco. O ca xoe pee, ye a cey xpcacy, o peeye oe a peoe apoc eoeeco y, a cc . Koy eoce, o oxaae c , o e oocc ao-o coao oac. ooy eo cooee c py peo epoa . Heepoc, aa cea e peo co. Haa aya, o eeyaa eop e oe co eepa a. Ka peooe epoae, oy . Opoy po y pae pycc peo eepae, pycca ceaca paco cxoo. Ho eppoe, ocyee ooee pe o peopeeeo ca Mapco. Mapc caa Bee pe oco paa ee, o pe ec oy apoa, paa oya c ayaoe aee Pocc. Mapc ya, o ocooe paoeo acca, a ceoaeo ceo eoeeca, yo pa eoeecoo cepa peooe yco. Mapc oop: e peoa cooa coec, a ocooee coec o peooo cyeep.

 

Peoe epoa opaa eoeecoe paco, paco y cxx c ppo ppaoax c oeca, o cyecy o ex op, oa eoe, coa eoe, e oae ooaeo cx ppaoa ca, opy eo . cox cx o pe Mapc yeo eepaxa, o paa c eepaxa coao apae. eepax ca ea aecec ocoo XIX ea, oe ocp oo a apoooeco oco ooe. eepax, a eco, xoe pepa eoo apooo. eo e eoe coa o opay oo oey, a o coa o opay oo eoeecoy. Pe ec paee ce ppo eoea, oopa oaec, oyaec o eoea epeocc paceey, oycopo oac. Pe oea, opaa eoea. e eoe ee oaoo oa. Bce oaca epeece a oa, cooe Ey. Bepa oa paae caoc, eoc, paco eoea. eoe c, oa, co e yac oe, o ce cee e y caoo ce. Mapc cea oca o o, o epa oa ep poeapa caoc, eoc, yeoc. Peoe epoa a ope, e yee, epeoc oey e peay oac ooy ea peao oee ocooe. oeooc poeapa oepe ce ope, e, oycopoe yee, o peaye oey ec, a ee. ee Mapca o x coa, x peox eooecx, opaax paco acoc eoea, eo caoc yeoc, o y eepaxa. Ho Mapc pa ye o opoc coa oee pe, coa xapaep. Bocy ae Mapca peoa pee ceo ee coa. Peoe epoa o yoe e po paccpeo oee, a peoopoae coa, oopoe pocxo cece peooo accoo op poeapaa. Mooo Mapc ocoeo epecoac opo po peox . eo o a pee ceo eeyaa opa, a pyo aypa. O axoc pyce eoo eeca. Bocec epec opoca, ca c paoo pocoepa, ocae. Mapc ac o peyecy opoca . Ho o ocaec ocy aeco. Bpoe, yo caa, o apeooc y Mapca paaac eee pae ope, e y ac y aya, e epa y pa. p, peca coaa poooo apcy c aapxec yoo, po oop, o coaceco oece pe ye apeea. ec, oop aca co ay y ope p ococx coax o pa, ae opaa ey ooy apee pe. Bocyee poceee oo pae opy ocyeo aea. Pay, oae coo ocooc o coax eo pa, poooaaec epe oa. o cea ec epexoa ca, oopo pay e coae, acoo o ac o opaex aeo, pay oee pe eceo oee coo coae co pa ee coe ooee peoo epe. Pycc pocee pay axoc epo ocye ca o eo axoc o ac aeo o. M o y ea.

e cpac yee aeco eaco pe. oop aeco, xo e ep cyecoae cx aeco. eoe ec peooe ooe , oa o opae coo, eoo oa, o coae cee ox oo, oo ypo, ooec . e oe py e Mapca o pe, a e opy e caoo ea. e o ee pyoc ao eo c. Mapca poea pe a pee ceo poeo ee coa, caoo, oeo, c coao . ea poea pe ec o ceo poea peooo op ee ocaoa pcocoea y o . e pa ypy ea. Ho ooopece ea e y, e yx oo eepaxa, He, e oo, o pacpaoc y ocoecoo, e ypee pa. Mc ea o pe, papocae pax eo coex, copa a oeo [1] . Bcpeac, ap. ae pa: Bc oea ec pyooco. e ae coe opeeee pe, copee eaoecoe, e ayoe: Pe ec o o yxooo ea, eaeo ee ocy a apox accax, aaex eo paoo a pyx, yo ooeco. ee opeeee: Pe po yxoo cyx, oopo pa aaa o co eoeec opa, co peoa a coo-y ocoy eoeecy . o opeeee ao o ee 1905 . Ocoeo ae e ce o coe xpcaco c coao. Peop ep eo peee epocoeca, popeccoe ooeoe xpcaco xye capoo, paaaeoc xpcaca. Kaoec o, pacea eyy, e e, opao eee oace, e o e pc, o e pyo pe, o e eopaec, pooey coae coopee oe. o epoo oa ee paoa, ocy a, a opoo e a poco, paoa eo cy pa pyee. a aeop oa e pc pae e ay po apeoo poaae. o oe poa aeop. oa e pc oaac ce e aepac, ce pae yxooe aao, xo cao ao cee, ce oco ee cpyacec eacec . ae e pa epeoe oo, ooy o o pa cyecoae ocecoo yca, oopoe oo o aa . e eae caoe coo pe o e poe oa e pc, ooy o o pooeoa a o oo pe ac ea yaapc. yaapc o e poe oa e pc, ooy o o pooea oopoeco, oopoe cyoc o opo aea ae ocyeo aea. Ho p ce eac ea po pe, o po oo, o a peoy poey a ep a ca opy c pee caocoeo aae, oo o peooo accoo op. e ae caac po apooo ocope peox yc, xo o ca x pyo ocop. O peoeye a paycx aececx ocoo XV ea oapyae, acoo ae apca-ea ac o ypyaoo poceeca XVIII ea.

Xo yx poceecoo aepaa XVIII ea oe ce oye, o pycce oyc, ceac o apeoo poaae, ea pae ey poceeco opo paao ypya po pe accoo, poeapco, peooo opo po pe. B coeco peoo epaype oe opo, o apeoo poaae oeeo oeoe eco exaoa yop eo a o, o o opoc c pee, a pocee, ooy e aceo-opoyoe ooee . exao ya, o poc pocee pee ececeoy opa peox epoa. Pe cee caa coo, caoeo, e cpaco op, cao c ace. exaoa o pee co opoc ee coa, . e. opoc ay ococ. ec poooaa oy peooy accoy opy po pe, opy eeo epexoy . Moo pa oepa, o opa c pee eaya, a poceee, a accoa. Tae aopee aae apcc, a Kayc Kyo, oe oc pocee, e oa peooo accoo op. Kayc Kyo oc, a e aeece aepac, . e. apae ypya paao. Ka Kaycoo pocxoee xpcaca coe pe a oe ea apccco cpee, coeco Pocc epe o e ooac apeoo poaa. Toe yo caa o e Kyoa pocxoee ep oa. Ho c ex op, a ycaoac eepaa coeco oco apeoo poaae, Kaycoo Kyoa oepy pa ecooecy opooc apca-ea. Kayc cae xpcaco c ee pcoo poeapaa. a oa pe paa peo, a a oa oe y paoe-pecc acca ca xpcacy. Kpoe oo Kayc paccapae xpcaco e coo c o pe op acco, coo a peya oec coao cpe, . e. o coe exaecoy, a e aeecoy oce, o ec epec. Kyoa o o, o o oyec eop 6ypyax yex, ap., eope aa Teopa, oce pocxoe peox epoa. O oc, a e ae. e apeoo poaa pey paccope pe ceo a opy accooo yee. Bca pya oa pe a pe paec ypyao. opooca aeec aepa ae eceo epoe oae cyoc co . O ooo coec oco aca y o pocxoe pe c o pe apccco cooo. B cycc, oopo ocyaac a a, a aopa ypoae ope a a o, o o eo e oop coe e o ax ea a a oe. Ap oa pao pya ocae, o o cex coex ea e ooo coa o a, o oee, o o e ae, o ea. Cc oo eeoo aoa . Coe ea ceoe cae, a ceo ca ce ooe opoc o pepee.

B apce cea cao cao copoo a coo, a ee, cece peoaa eao, cxoo ee caee, pyee eeapee. ae cxoo acco coax py coce e papaoaa aeec eeap opa oe. Ty ec coce e coco eeyao-oaaeo ycaoe, x ycao ce ooae. Taa e oa oac, a oac peoo cxooa coce . Coeca epaypa o apeoo poaae co a oe o eeyao ypoe ceec eepeoca o coey c, o ca po epayp coeco Pocc. Heoao py, eyc , p ce coe eeapoc, ao o apo acca coece apeoe appayp. Bpaaaec ea eooo op po . Apeoa poaaa eec oaoc ce coec ocoa, pa opooca, .e. paa eepay . opa c pee, co co pee, xo e a, oop e ec oo a ooec, o a oaoo epeycpoca . Bece c e coa, o pcoe epoa oe y apoe, oee y, e ce caoe c oeco ooeco . a pa a apeoo poe oyc ep aoe opae. B apeoo npoaae pxoc cac c e, o aa peo cyeep pepaccya peccx paox accax. Meo apeoo poaa o c cac. Moo oyco, eo ap ece c e epy, xpcao, oo pae coay popay oya e pae oycecoo pocoepa, e aeec aepaco eoo? Tao ocoo opoc.

2.

Koyc, oe o coa-epao, e pa, o pe ec acoe eo, eo o coec. Haoopo, o ca, o pe ec eo caoe oee, coaoe. pae pe ac eo, . e. pae cyeoo paa coo coec, ec o apapa epao-eopaecx popa o p coa-eopae epao eopa. Ca Mapc, pa pe oyo apoa ea pece a yx cooe paoeo acca eoeeca, e o ca pe ac eo. Pe ec eo coao op. Pycc oy eae oceoae pa o oe pe Mapca a pe, oopoo e xoea cea coa-eopa, aa ce eoope p epaa. Koyc aa ooeo coa-eopao coa-peae ey po ca x peae opoce peo. Coa-eopa, ae pooe ce ca apcca, oyc co cpey aece eo ap epyx xpca, ae acpe poeccopo eoo. Ho o a, o coa-eopa e xoe pocoepae, oa xoe oeco ape, cceo coax . e oop ye o aco , oop opao oee ca c xpcaco, e c apco. Koy e pee ceo xoe pocoepae, o aape ooy opoc peo eo oe ae. Pycc oy, oy ooe e ec pyccoe coae c co popay cpo opeeeoo pocoepa. B 13 ocy oyceco ap, e oo pycco, o epaoao, oopc, o a e oyceco ap oe aeco ec apeoy poaay. O eo ap peyec pepaee ax-o e c epo. e oo ycao p, ax oe epac oyc coe ooe pe. O cooae, ao cce yo oa, o pe ec acoe eo. Pe ec acoe eo o ooe ypyaoy ocyapcy. B ypyao ocyapce oyc o a cooy coec, a oeee ep o ocyapca, o ocaa o p, o pe ec acoe eo. Ho ce aeec eec, oa cac opoc o ooe pe yp oyceco ap, a ceoaeo yp oycecoo ocyapca oeca. Pe coce e ec acoe eo yp oyceco ap, y oa caoe oee, caoe coaoe eo, y ya ecoaa opa c . Koyc, aco epa oyc, e oe peo, epy eoeo, e oe xpcao. ea oyeco ap oaeo opeeeoe pocoepae, o oe aepaco aeco p o cy aeco. Heocaoo pae coay popay oya, o eo oyceco ap. Koy ec coeae opeeeo ep, ep pooooo xpcaco. Bc coeca epaypa yepae aoe oae oya. Koyc oepa, o o po xpcaco, eaeco opa, opa , aoc, cocpaa. o oe ec caoe cpaoe oye.

o oopycec coopae peaa ea cee paox peoo opoce. Ta a y paox a ee oca peox pepaccyo, o x oo pa oycecy ap, ec o pae coay popay oya, e cpac o x peox epoax. Ho pecaee ee o eoyco. Oe xapaepa cop co ec oyco Xexyo. O ac yepa, o pe ec eo coec aoo eoea o oo oyco epy xpcao. a o a Xexya oe peo aa, o oepc oe ypoy opae co copo pocacoo [2] , aoo ceaca o apeoo poaae, ey oc, o pe e ec acoe eo yp oya. Ceac e oyceco ap e oe xo epo, e oe oapya ao-o peoo ep. oee oo, o eaec oope, ec oapyae xoooc apeoo poaae e coeye ocyeo aea. Koyceca ap o oe cpyype, o yeoy cay cox aeo pecae o-o poe aececo ce, peoo aececo ce, axaae co py ac.

Hapaco ya, o peoe oe coeco Pocc apae po paocao ep, oopa a epo ococye caa a poo c oapxe peae. Cea, ap., ac, oc oee oac, e paocae, c opa paec oee pyo eo ooy, o poo o ca o e ca c ca ococoa p capo pee. Xpcae, oope pa pay oya oac coao, cac oee pe oac, e xpcae, ope c pecapaopa . Coooca, aececa aepaceca ypya ye, e pae coycye oyy, oa oe cooaa coacecoo cpoeca, a oo ae paoya pocoepa, o pe a xpcae-oyc paa eococ oycecoo pocoep. e o opypoa [3] .

B pyooe epaype, oceo apeoo poaae, e peoeyc peoe peceoa. Ceac o eo poca oop, o eoo coaa yeo. Ho aec yeo o oa. Ce ocae eeoeece yco cyecoa, o e, e eeapx eoeecx pa, ap coeco ocyapce. Cyee ya o xo oca aoe ooee, o e o . Heoco opaoe aepaoe ooee ceo, po oopx e oyo ax oe. o ooee ae a eo, o oa peoa ocae py. Ho ecoo ceo poe oo ocoo apecoa, cca Coo paccpea. Koyco, oceax epo, ca ap. Coecx cyax a oceee ep a . ocea ep oo ao, e-y a pooooo oe opoa, a opae. Opoe coeae xpcaco ep coeco Pocc peye epoa, a aco y. Ce o coe poecc oe oop o oe ep, e e ep ey apeeo oop o oe. Coo peoo coec coeco Pocc, oeo, e . Coeca ocy, oea epo o ocyapca pooaaa cooy coec, e ee aoo ae. py ec e oo eca paa, o oa xo pocopae oya, ceo epoye. Ooeo pecae coeco ac, oa oop o apeox oex, oea, o oe e, o pecey ceo oppeooepo, aox oe oo cpe ecoo, ceo epyx p, o epo pecec, ocoo oa ec oa peaox, pecapaopcx acpoe. Ho oy oaecoy oce poope o a, o oyc o cex epaypx paex x poope, x coceo ep, pey cye op po co pe. O cay, o o opa ea, ecya a coae. Ta peca cee Mapc opy po . o co eopeecoe paccyee. Caoe aoe o, o pycce oyc peca ceac ac, x pya axoc ocyapco. o ocyapco ox ayp, a aypa ec aypa pocoepa, aypa e oo oeca ooeca, o eeyaa, aypa a yxo, a coec, a c. aypa a e cecec cpecax oyec ce . o eopa, ceoopoa eopa, oa pacopa aoco yo. ye opeeec eeoc opa coo coec c, eeoc peox oe.

Bce eopeece, ee, ococe cop ce paece, oece, ooece cop coeco Pocc co o ao opooc epec. Bce pae ee yo oco oe paccapac, a yo epeece. pocxo ocooe oee epeo peceoae oex epec. Ho paee ey opooce epec ec paee peooe, eooecoe, a e ococoe e oecoe. Koa oa ocaea o a opooc, o ocyapco paccapaec a epo eeo peceoae a epoa e. Ta o cpeeeoo xpcaco eopa, a coeco, oyceco eopa, a epoco pee apce, a o co ocyapce, peey a oaapoc. oa po, ca aeae eope caoepa, coa oe paocaoo apca, p oopo ap oe aoc o cace y cox oax. y ep epexo a ocyapco. Koyceca ac oe ac o cace y cox oax, oa xoe oca x eocacae ce, oa ae cy, cy aeecoo aepaa. Koyceca ac, e e opaea, ec eac xpcacy, oopo co paca, cyaa, . Koyc peao eeece epocee opocax peox, o opec o e oa, yc ce coceo peoo epo. Koyceca ac epeo poe oy oc oe, oa ae oe oopyca eyapoo oe, e a ycy oe ooeco, oa ooa a eoopy cooy cycce epaype. Koy eec, oopye, o aoapyec, eaec oee yyp, oycec ypyaaec o oypyaae ec oa oacoc e oya oo, o pycco e pe. Ho ec oac, oopo oy eee, ecoae, aae e a ae ycy e e, o oac pocoepa, oco, a ceoaeo pe. Bc coeca ococa epaypa epaypa o apeoo poaae caa ecpocea, caa yepca oaeea. oa o epayp peocxo ce, o xpcaco eoo. oa aec, o coeca ac copee oe a occaoee aaa ooeco , e a cooy peoo coec, cooy ococo c, cooy op yxoy yypy. a eac pe xpcacy ee yoe op poo xpcaca.

Heac pyccx oyco xpcacy aae cee poopee, oopoo e coco ae e, e coae oaeo oyceco opo. y oyca, . e. eoea eo axaeoo cyee ee, cocooo a opoe ep a ecopc ya, ooe oo cece xpcacoo oca eoeecx y, cece epepao aypaoo eoea xpcac yxo. Peya o xpcacoo a eoeece y, co epoo aeoo, ocac oa, oa coe coa oaac o xpcaca ae ca eo paa. Ec oyc, o apeoa poaaa ooaeo cpe ce xpcaca yax pyccx e, ec a yo coe peooe yco, o ocyecee oya ceaec eoo, o o e oeae ec ep, o e ye ye oa , a cyee cepxo e, ooaeo oe ypa, yaeo oo o cox epecax. o oce ceac ye pae e ay po o eo e poecc oypyaa. Koy o coe ee xoe ccyec e oo cpaeoc, o paco eoeecx ooex, oyo ey . Ho ao ceo ya, o paco ey oe ocyeceo ye ee pyeo coao ypo, ye p, a oop e. oo yo ece yx yxox . Maepacec aecec oy opee a eyay a e a coae oeca, oooo exay, oopo e ye ye pa eoeecoo opaa. e e eee oyc, o xpcacy oae ocoae c co eeoc a epee peoo ep, . e. opae ee a pee e peo, ea xpcaco pe ooe. oo o yoe cepee p, oope e oy ceo ca c coeae oeeo eop, paeo . Xpcae, oae oyco a x eoe a apeoe oe, e o c y oaa ceo a x oyco-eoo, o o a ce oo ac , aey ac. O o e oo oe cy, o ac. Moo xpcae cea ocyece xpcaco pa coao , ac o ocyec paco e e o eac ac, oopx o oa oyco? pex xpca, pex copecx epe oe e pex ey a coo cpaey apy. ea aea Xpca, opaee xpcaco ep cpeco oepa ococyx acco e oo e a o eoeeco caoc oae o xpcaca ex, oope pye cpaa o o e o o pae xpcaca. popoo, Eae, aococx ocax, y oue ac yee ep axo ocyee oaca oax, opae coceoc, yepee paeca cex e epe oo. C.Bac Beoo, ocoeo y C.oaa aoyca, oo cpe ae pee cye o coao epae, cao c oaco coceoc, o epe ee pyo Mapc. e ep caa, o coceoc ec paa. C. oa aoyc coepe oyc, xo o , oeo, oy e aaceco, e ycpao ox. C o ocoae oo caa, o oy ee xpcace yeo-xpcace co [4] . Ho copo aaac oxa, oa xpcaco o pcocoeo apcy ecap coeo pee. o ceao ope, o xpcaco e ec oo ca, o oopo oe cope p, o o oo oe coao oeo ycpoe apca ecap. Xpcae, epapx, eco, ce aa aa ocoye acc oax, ac yx. Cea oe o ye o epopoo pexe, opaae coe cyecyee o ecpaeoc. Cpaa cece pa oe cace y o o peo a opao acca yee, opee a cpaa cece, o oey-o e peeo yeae aca. Xpcacoe cpee o oo cooao cooae ooac opa eoeecoo ococa, peoa oopoc coy coaoy y. Xpcaco ooac opaa peoc eoea, a . Hyo cea o, o epo ee a pax cca. Ceee x yx cco ee ep opae ooo x ee pooe ocec. epo ec cecoe eo Xpcoo, yxoa peaoc, pooaa op Xpca coo ee ec opoee, ece oa a eoea p. Ho epo ec ae coa eoe, coa y, oa caa c coao cpeo cae a cee ee e, axoc o aoec c ocyapco, ee coe pao xoco, co ee coa. epo, a coa cy, a ac cop, pexoa, cocoa ae cae eo c xpcaca, aa peeoe eoeecoe a eoe oeceoe. epo cop ec oe co ooeoeec, a e oo oece poecc, eoeeca ee copoa opea. Ho ea ca Xpcoo ep copoeo ecye epe epo, a coa cy, cea ooce o. Mapcc-ec o epo, a coa eoe cy, eo a e . x ce poeo apyy, x e yxoo , oa ec eoe, e ocoe, yxepoe e epe y. Ho oy yo o, a o xpcacoy py, e oapyaec c cy oae o ecoeo . Ca oyc oo e oa o e oy. Koyc oa ype, acece ea xpca, o ca o pooa ea e e ype, acece . x oeceoc a ea ac oe ea, ooy o o e a c xpcaca, o o oece a o, o e xo a o c.


















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