. .

(1957)

9 6 (. 308-315). (. Popper. The Nature of Philosophical Problems and Their Roots in Science // British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 1952, vol. 3, pp. 124 .; Conjectures and Refutations). : (1) , (, -, ) , . (2) , ( ) , , ad hoc. (3) , : , , , , ; , , , , , .
, (. . 308, (2)) . (, , . Diels-Kranz, .)
. 310 , , , ,


396
, . . , , , , , , , . , , , (451 /b; ; 453 ) , , , (465 b/). , (508 ) (. . 48 . 8), , . ,
, , 465 , , , , ,
a fortiori. ,
(. , 496 /b 522 ). , . 309.
The Nature of Philosophical Problems and Their Roots in Science , , , .
1961 .
1957 ., (. (2) ). (ed. Friedlein, 1873, Prologus II, p. 71, 2-5), , , , . . .

II
(1961)

50 (6) 8 , , , . - , 1949 . , 174 . , , , , , ad hoc, - .
, - . .
(. Eva Sachs // Socrates, 1917, vol. 5, p. 531 .), , , 369 . . ., , . (.: Klassikerhefte // Ed. by H. Diels, Berlin, 1905, vol. 2), - . , :
(1) , -, : , , . , , , -, (. , 1078b 17-33; . 987b 1 1086b 3), , , ( -) ; , -, , : ... , , , [ ] (. , 183b 7). (

398
(On the Sources of Knowledge and of Ignorance // Proceedings of the British Academy, 1960, vol. 46; ., , . 50), (Oxford University Press) Conjectures and Refutations.)
(2) , , , . (, , , .) , , .
(3) , , . : , - , , , ; , , , , . , , , (, 210 ).
(4) , , , , , ( 142 143 ), , , , , . , . , , , (142 c-d; 143 ), , ( , , ), , . , : . . ( - ,

399
, - .) , 143 , (., : . Rltter. Plato, vol. 1, 1910, pp. 220 .) 143 b- , . ( .)

lII
(1961)

- . , , , .
, , . , , , , . . -, , , , . . (645 ) (Ronald . Levinson. In Defence of Plato. Cambridge, 1953).
. ( ) , , ( ).

, , . , , ?
? , , , , , . - , , , , , .

401
, .
, . . , , , . , , , , . , .
, . : , , , . , , (R. . Levinson, op. cit., p. 273, note 72).
, , : (. . . 230 . 183-184, p. 179A p. 140A pp. 183-184E pp. 142-143E1) , , , , , ... .
, . , , , , . , 8 (. 179 ), : " ", . , .
, , , , . , ,
1 1950 1956 ., Ż , 1952 . . ** . . .**

402
. , , , . , . , , : ?, , , , - , .
. : , " " , , , , , . , , . , , " ". ? (op. cit., p. 354 .).
: , , , . , , , , -, .
, . - , , . , , , . .
, (. 441), , , , ,

403
-, . ( , , , . , , , . , , , .)
, , . , , (. 242 = p. 195E = p. 190) , (R. Levinson, op. cit., p. 354). , , , . , . , , , . : , . , . , , .
, , . ( ... .) , , , . , , , , , . , , , - .
, , , , . , , -

404
. , .
, , . , ( ). .
, , , . , , , "deport" ("") "send out" (""), (op. cit, p. 349, note 244). , . , , deport () , , , , . -, banish (). ( , send out (), .)
, . : [. 209 = p. 166E = p. 162A] ["", 540 /541 ] , . , "send away" "expel and deport"... (R. Levinson, op. cit., p. 348, note 243). : , . , ,
, ,
, expel, to drive away (, ) to send away in disgrace ( , ), , . . . , to send away with collateral notion of disgrace ( ). to
send off (, ), to dispatch (, ). ( )

405
, . . ( ). - to dispatch him ( , ). 179 (op. cit., p. 348), , , , , , . , , expel deport , . , , , : expel and deport, . ( must be expelled... and deported, , , . , expel and deport , . .)
, , . , . , 2. All inhabitants above the age of ten, , they [the "philisophers who have become "masters of the state"] will send out into the fields, and they will take over the children, remove them from the manners and habits of their parents, and bring them up in their own customs and laws which will be such as we have described3.
2 . . . .
3 .
9 (p. 166E =
p. 162A): All citizens above the age of ten... must be expelled from the city and
deported somewhere in the country; and the children who are now free from the
influence of the manners and habits of their parents must be taken over. They must
be educated in the ways [of true philosophy], and according to the laws, which
we have described. : ,
, ["", "
"] , ,
, , ,
, . ,
,
they, . .
.

406
, ( , , , . 209 p. 166E = p. 162A). , ... , - , ? , , , , , ? ( , ... , - , , , 179 , . . , , , . -, 526 .)
. , , , . , .
, , . 208-209 = p. 166E = p. 162A , , . . , , 293 - ( ) : , , ... , , ... ... . by killing or by deporting ( ), by killing or banishing ( ).
(op. cit., p. 349) . , : , . , . : [ " ", ,

407
, ] . , , ... , . , , , , , ( ) . . , , . , , .
. , ( ) , , ( , , ) : , ; , [, , ] , (, , , , , ).
, , -, ; -, , , ; -, , , , , .
. , , , : , , ,

408
, - .
, . , , , , , ? , , , .
, , . , , , . , , , ( ), , , , , , , .
, , , : ?

, - , :
(1) , , ( 10, VI)? . 55 . 10, . . . , , , , .

409
(2) , , -, , , , ?
(3) , ( , 540 /541 , , 293 -) ?
(4) , - , (racial breeding), , - ?
(5)
, 942 -b,
(
. 33 34 . 6)?
, , , - , , . , .
, : ?
, .
() , X ( 907 d , , 909 d). , , . , ( , , , , , , ), . ( . , , , ). (. . . 908 ),

410
, , ... , - , ... (908 b-; , , , , , , , ). : , , , , , , . , , [ " " ] . , , . , , , . , , .
.
(2') , , , . , , , , , . , , , , .
, (. 56 . 10), , . , , , , . , , , . , (R. Robinson // Philosophical Review, 1951, vol. 60), . (op. cit., . 20)

411
. , , " ", (. 61) , , , , , , . (, , (5), .)
. , , , ( ) , , , (R. Robinson, op. cit., p. 494):
- , ... , . , "" . , "" . , "" . , "" . .
- ? , , , " ". , , - , ! ?
-, , .
, , , , , . , .
, 337 (. . 105 = p. 70E; ,

412
, . R. Levinson, op. cit., p. 144) : , (. 147). . . , , . , , - , . , . , , [ ] , .
, , , : ; , , . , , . , , . , (streng) frech (, ) .
, , , , , . , ( 563 b, 4, II, . 75 = p. 43E = p. 44A, . )4: And the climax of popular liberty... is attained in such a city when the purchased slaves, male and female, are no less free than the owners who paid for them .
4 4 (p. 43E = p. 44A) . : But the height of all this abundance of freedom... is reached when slaves, male as well as female, who have been bought on the market, are every whit as free as those whose property they are. : , , (. . 75). . .

413
(. . 414), . : (op. cit., p. 176), , . , , , . 75 (= p. 43E = p. 44A), . (563 d), (563 b . ), . 5: And do you know that the sum total of all these items... is that they render the souls of the citizens so sensitive that they chafe at the slightest suggestion of servitude [ "slavery" ] and will not endure it?
? , . . 176, . 153, . (. 153) , : , ; (,
), ( ).
, , , (hauteur). ( ), , , -
5 4 (p. 43E = p. 44A) . : And what is the cumulative effect of all this? That the citizens' hearts become so very tender that they get irritated at the mere sight of anything like slavery. : , ... , , : (. . 75). . .

414
, , . : . ( , ), , , .
(op. cit., p. 153, ) : ... , , ? , , - . , , , 6.
, " "... , ( (op. cit., p. 24), " ", )
6 1965 . , (, )
(, 563 d) ( , ), . . ( , .) , servitude
( 563 d) : , 491 , , 890 . . (Plato with an English Translation. L.-N.Y. . The Loeb Classical Library) : For how can a man be happy if he is a slave to anybody at all ( , - ?). to be a slave ( ) , , to submit oneself (), .

415
, , ... , ... " "...
, , ( ) . - ? , , () ? (. (Slavery).)
(3') , , , . (, 293 -), . , . . , , . , , ( 293 -) , , , .
(4') -
[ . 414] . , 890 , , . (Laws // The Loeb Classical Library, vol. ID : these teachers [who corrupt the young men] attract them towards the life... "according to nature" which consists in being master over the rest, in reality , instead of being a slave to others, according to
legal convention (... , , , , , ). (. . 105 . 13 . 5), , , ( ). ( ).

416
, : : , : (. . 180).
(op. cit., . 434, . 179 . = pp. 138E . = pp. 136A . . 192 = p. 150E = p. 148A ): , , "" ( ) ... , . , , .
, , , " , ", (. . 192 = p. 150E = . 148 ), , .
.
: , , 7, , , ( ), . , , . , , , (rather general permission), , , , ,
7 , 8 . , , , . 2 . 8 (, 389 b), , , (, 460 ). : , 415 d, , 18 . , , , . . , 663 d 664 b.

417
" " (op. cit., . 434-435; ).
? ( , , ), , , , , , , ?
, , , .
, , ( ). , (breeding schedule) , , , (op. cit., . 541; ).
, ? , (, 460 ), ? : ", ( , . . ) , , , . (. . 85 = . 51 = . 52; ).
? , , ? ?
, . 8.
8 4 . : The race of the guardians must be kept pure (p. 51E = p. 52A). : , , [] , , . , * (. . 85). . .


418
( ), ( ): ...the offspring of the inferior, and any of those of the other sort who are born defective, they [the rulers] will properly dispose of in secret, so that no one will know what has become of them. That is the condition, he said, of preserving the purity of the guardian's breed.
, . , . . . , . : At all events the breed of the guardians must be preserved pure ( ) If at all events [as we agree ] the purity of the breed of the guardians must be preserved ( [ ] ), , (. 85 = . 51 = p. 52A) . , , ... , , , . , .
, ( ). . , - , . ( , , .)
(5') , , , 942 -b, (, , ). . . , . ( , , , : , -

419
, - ?)
, , . . , , , ! , , -, , , . , ( ), - .
, , . , (op. cit., p. 531, , ):
[. 141-142 = . 103 = p. 102A], .
. : ... [ ] , " " , , , . , ... . .
, , -, , , , . , , : . ? . (Laws // The Loeb Classical Library, vol. II, p. 477; ), (, , : - ), : ...nor should anyone, whether at work or in play, grow habituated in mind to acting alone and on his own initiative, but he should live always both in war and peace, with his eyes fixed constantly on his commander and following his lead.
14*

420
(R. , op. cit., p. 479): This task of ruling, and of being ruled by, others must be practised in peace from earliest childhood...
: . , , 9. , (op. cit., p. 531), , : [ ] [ ] 1 , .
, , , . : , , , . 1 , [ ?] , ... , .
9 6 (. 103 = p. 102A) . : The greatest principle of all is that nobody, whether male or female, should be without a leader. Nor should the mind of anybody be habituated to letting him do anything at all on his own initiative; neither out of zeal, nor even playfully. But in war and in the midst of peace to his leader he shall direct his eye and follow him faithfully... And in times of peace, and from the earliest childhood on should it be fostered this habit of ruling others, and of being ruled by others. : : , . , : , ... , , . (. . 141-142). . . . . .

421
, , (op. cit., p. 532; ).
, () . (ft) , , (, , , , ), , .
, , , , . , , , , , . , , , , , , , , : .
, , , . (op. cit., p. 533):
- "leader". , -
, . , ("directors") .
, . ( , director?) , , , leader ( dux, il duce).
, , to be first ( ) , .

422
: to lead, rule, govern, command, be leader or commander (, , , , , ). archon : a ruler, commander, captain (, , ), , . , , leader , . , , , , : but he should live always, both in war and peace, with his eyes fixed constantly on his commander and following his lead. Ha , leader : . (leadership), , (R. Levinson, op. cit., p. 531) , .
, , , . , , leader , . , . .
, , , -. , , , .
- . , ( ) , . , , , - -

423
. . (op. cit., p. 532) , , , .
, , , - . , . , . (R. Robinson // Philosophical Review, 1951, vol. 60, p. 491). , . , :
, . , . , - 942- "", , . (, , , , . . " " ["", 942 d 1 ]).
, - . .
. , , , . , , , , . , , : .
, -

424
. , , . , - . , (, ). , . , , . , , , , , , .

IV
(1965)

31 3 , , , . , , (Diana Spearman. Modern Dictatorship) , 1939 . . .


















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