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ISBN 5-8297 0042-5 ( .)

XX . , , , , . , . - - -. , . , , , , ..
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- (. OCR: (.)
ihtik.lib.ru, [email protected]).

Alexander A. Ivin
THE PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY
Contents

Chapter 1. The main tasks of the philosophy of history
History and the philosophy of history............................5
The theory of local civilization of A. Toynbee....................13
The philosophy of history of P. Sorokin..........................24
The philosophy of history of K.Jaspers..........................29

Chapter 2. The general scheme of the world history
Collectivism and individualism as the two poles of history.........43
Collectivism and individualism from the modern point of veiw___55
Collectivistic associations: army, church, mass, normal science.....73
General view on the human history: epochs and civilizations......88
On the sense of history....................................... 102
On the laws of history and historical progress.................. 114

Chapter 3. Individualistic (open) society
From the history of individualistic societies.................... 127
Modern capitalism (postcapitalism)........................... 138
Civil society and democracy.................................. 149
The value of freedom......................................... 163
Human rights............................................... 169
Liberalism................................................... 175
The evolution of liberalism................................... 190
Conservatism................................................ 203
The criticism of capitalist society.............................. 211
The future of capitalism...................................... 223

Chapter 4. Collectivistic (closed) society
The archetype of theoretical collectivism (Plato's utopia)....... 241
Collectivistic rigid structure.................................. 247
The aim of collectivistic society............................... 252
The enemies of collectivistic society........................... 265
Totalitarian party............................................ 271
Utilitarian freedom.......................................... 278
The evolution of communism and its crisis.....................288
The future of collectivism.....................................306

Chapter 5. The collectivistic style of thinking
Speculative general orientation................................312
Dogmatism and authoritarianess..............................321
Traditionalism and conservatism..............................338
Symbolism..................................................348
Hierarchism and universalism.................................357
Rhetorical problems and irrefutable theories....................365
The problem of triunity.......................................371
Dialectics...................................................376
From the history of dialectics.................................385
Philosophy..................................................401
The understanding of history and other peculiarities............414

Chapter 6. The collectivistic style of life
The brightness and sharpness of life............................421
The simplified manner of motivation and credulity..............435
Sins and faults...............................................444
Asceticism...................................................452
Natural and artificial needs...................................464
Utilitarian approach to science and culture.....................468
The collectivistic hierarchy of love.............................473
Love to the distant...........................................479
Love to man and love to truth and good........................483
Love to "law and order" and liking for swear-words.............490
Sex and sensuality............................................498
Taste and fashion............................................508

Conclusion. The end of history....................................516


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