- .

II.

3.

, : . , . , , , , , , , . . . . . . , .

22 , , , .

21 . . // , 1996, 1, . 171.

22 . . . . . . , . ., 1998.

147

, , , , , .

, , . , , . , Too many cooks spoil the broth [ ] 12 (!) :

;

, ;

, ;

;

() ;

;

;

;

, ;

;

- ;

.

, , , , , .

:

Prevention is better than cure [ , ];

One cannot be too careful [ ];

Safety first [ ]. :

, ;

() .

, , , . : . :

;

. :

Walls have ears [ ];

The floor is yours! [ ! (. !)];

148

Easier said than done [ , ]; to ride a hobby - horse [ ]. :

() () ;

, ;

, ;

;

, .

, , .

:

Silence is golden [ ];

Brevity is the soul of wit [ ];

First think ; then speak [ , ];

A word to the wise [ ];

Still waters run deep [ ]. :

, ;

;

. :

A penny for your thoughts ? [ () ?]. :

;

.

, , .

:

It takes all sorts to make a world [ , ];

Variety is the spice of life [ ];

Tastes differ [ ];

Every man to his taste [ ];

There is no accounting for tastes [ ];

One man's meat is another man's poison [ , ];

Beauty is in the eye of the beholder [ ]. :

- ;

;

.

149

, , , .

: . :

, ;

;

, . : . :

.

, , . . , , .

, . :

1. , : , , , , , .

2. , , : , , , , , , , , , , , , .

3. , , : , , , , . 23 .

, , , , , , . , . , , , -

23 . . . . . . , . ., 1998, . 132-133.

150

. , .

: , , , u . , , , you , . , ( , ), , . : ! . : , ", , " 24 . : " " , , (. . ). :

: ... . ... , .

( )

, , :

. - . , , , , , ". , , ". , , , 25 .

, , , , .

, , - -

24 . . , 4 // , 1999, 27.

25 , 20.11.1996.

151

. . : , , , . - : s , , .

:

Usually referring to a person as we express our respect. Traditionally we say to people who are older than we are (thus, through language children learn to respect elderly people from the very beginning).

, . , ( , ).

:

du () De () 60- XX ( ) , . , , . . 70- , - , du , De . du . , Professor . ( ), , De , (.: , , though ''), .

, , , , , , , ( ), : ... the same in the case when the Russians use the second person pronoun

for all relatives. I was shocked for the first time when I heard a small boy playing in the park, calling his mother by . Then I accepted it. In our culture, if a person is older than you, you always have to use the equivalent form of . When one of my

... , , . , , , , . . , , , . , , , . , , .

1 52

Russian friends visited me and I addressed my mother using , which is absolutely normal, she was shocked. Then she further added to my knowledge that if they used for their close relatives the latter might even

feel insulted .

( )

, :

, . , , 26 .

you , - . , , , you . , , . , , , , .

, , . , , , , . . . , : " 27 . , you .

. , : -- (--), --(--), -- (--), -- . , ( bird [] birdie [], girl [] girlie [] ), , ( -).

, , , . , ( ) , . , , - , .

26 , 1998, 43 (256).

27 . . . . ., 1998, . 46.

153

, . , , ? (!) : Are you still alive , my dear little old woman ?

, - : , , , , . .; , , , , , ; : , , , , , ; , , , ; , , ; : , , , , ; , , , . . little dear little : little at [. ], dear little dog [. ], dear little fork / spoon / frying pan [. / /] ...

, , . , . , , : , , , . . ( ), . .

, , , , : . , , - . .

, , , : , , .

, . , .

- . , 28 .

, ( ) , , , , . , , , - , , . , , , ,

28 3. . // IX . , . . 2. , 1999, . 179.

154

. : , . :

, , , , , , ( ) 29 .

: . , , , : , : , . , dear little corridor dear little hospital , , - , , . , , .

, ( overstatement ), , ( understatement ), , , , .

, , , , , , (?) . : , , . .

, . , : Dear John ! Dear Smith ! Dear Sir / Madam ! : , , Dear Svetlana , ?!

Aeroflot :

( . . .) , -: 100 000!

Most of the wolves alive today over 100.000 of them roam the vast wildland of Russia .

 

( Aeroflot , 1996, 16, p . 67)

. !

Local businessmen also observe this rite. They have the Camb blessed and take it to an orphanage as an act of charity.

 

(Ibid., 1998, 5, p. 20)

29 . . . ., 1995, . 197.

155

! <...> !

Dear Passengers, <...> See you soon in sunny Armenia.

( Ibid ., p . 29)

, :

, ! Be sure of vacancy !

He ! Don't throw waste into closet!

, , .

, , .

: ! !

: ! !

.

, , . . (7 ) , . (10 ) 8 ( : , ).

!

!!! !!! !!! !!!

!!! ! !

8 !!! ( )!!! !

!!!

, , , . , .

-- :

Your Labour City Council is well known for the quality of its services and

the innovative ways of delivering them. That's an achievement to be proud of!

! , !

156

Dear Miss D. Welcome to the Liberal Democrates! We have received your subscription of ... A form is attached below for your convenience!

., -! ... !

Labor want to introduce a Graduate Tax so that Graduates will pay a higher income tax rate than the rest of the population!

, , !

The Winter Draw is the last draw before the election, and your last chance to help the Liberal Democrats by entering the draw: Definitely!

, . !

The Party's Women's organisation open to men too! Our Party headquarters at Cowley Street can help you. We are here to help!

! , , . , !

, :

Richard . G. Stephenson New address for me!

. . !

Open Day Room change!! Room change!! now

in room A 25

!! !! 25

, - , .

, , - , :

Dear S.,

Nice to hear from you recently! I wish you had a wonderful trip to Australia! Thanks for your understanding about my suggestions at the January meeting!

Warm wishes !

.,

! , ! , ! !

, , - , Warm wishes ! ( overstatement ) . (, ! , ...) . , , !

30 , , , . , : : , , , , ; , , , " . "

157

( . . , 0. . , . . , . . . . , 1989, . 116). ( overstatement ) , . -, , , -, . .

. . , ( ), , , , , .

, , , , : ; ; ; ; . , ( Kate loves Pete ), , . / , , , .

, , , , -, , , , , . , , , .

, , , . , : Ladies and gentl men , ! Iadies : . , men and women .

, , , , ; gentlemen , ladies . , boys and girls , . , , , , . , , .

-, , : wife and I [ ], husband and I [ ], , -

158

. - , : , , .

, , , , , , , , , . , , , , - , , , ( ) , ( )? , , .

. . :

-;

,

;

.

,

.

, , ?! ( a , an ) ( - - ), ( , ). ( ) , !

. . : , , , , , 31 .

, . , , , , , - .

. . , :

31 . . . . ., 1992, . 181.

159

Ein Fichtenbaum steht einsam

Im Norden auf kahler Hoh'.

Ihn schlafert; mit wei?er Decke

Umhullen ihn Eis und Schnee.

Er traumt von einer Palme,

Die, fern im Morgenland,

Einsam und schweigend trauert

Auf brennender Felsenwand .

... :

, ,

, , .

, ,

, ,

.

, - ( , ) a cedar - a palm - tree , . : ein Fichtenbaum ( ), eine Palme ( ). , , , .

, , , , .

- , , .

, , , , .

, .

, , .

, , . , . , .

160


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