- .

II.

2.

Last week I pointed out that art and propaganda

are never quite separable, and that what are supposed

to be purely aesthetic judgements are

always corrupted to some extent by moral

or political or religious loyalties.

George Orwell. Tolstoy and Shakespeare.

, , , , - , .

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1.

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, , , ( , , , , , ). , , , ( ) ().

, , - , , , (. .).

, , ideology , :

Ideology 1 manner of thinking, ideas, characteristic of a person,

group, act as forming the basis of an economic or political system: bourgeois, Marxist and totalitarian ideologies (ALDCE).

1 , , , . ., : , .

Ideology. An ideology is a set of beliefs, especially the political beliefs

on which people, parties, or countries base their actions (CCEED).

. , , , .

Ideology sometimes derog. a set of ideas, esp. one on which a political

or economic system is based: Marxist ideology | the free market ideology of the extreme right (DELC).

. , , - : , .

194

Ideology. Science of ideas; visionary speculation; manner of thinking characteristic of a class or individual, ideas at the basis of some economic or political theory or system, as Fascist, Nazi ~ (COD).

. ; ; ; , , , , .

ideology , ( set ), / ( beliefs ). . , . , , , , ( a person , an individual ).

, , , , , , . .

ideology : LDCE sometimes derog . ( derogatory ''). COD . . - , .

. , , , . () . , , , .

. . 16 1999 : , , , , . . , , , , .

, , . , ( ):

195

, ideology , ( ).

, , , , ( . .), , . , , , . .

, , , (). , , .

Mentality. The being mental or in or of the mind; (degree of) intellectual

power; (loosely) mind, disposition, character (COD).

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, ( ) , . : , .

2. :

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. . , , , : ( ) , ( ). .

, , , ( , ), : , , , , . . . , . -

196

. , . , . .

, , , .

I.

, , , , , , , , . :

1. , . , , , . , . , . , . she [], : Where America was and where she is now [ ]. mother country [-], our country [ ] 1 .

, , : country , the United States , my part of America [ , , ]; my country , the South , my side of the South [ , , ]; our land , our homes [ , ].

, our country [ ], .

America the beautiful [-]. : beautiful America [ ], America the beautiful [-] ,

1 .: the Youth of Japan // W. Faulkner. Essays, Speeches and Public Letters. Ed. by James B. Meriwether. New York, 1965, p. 82-86.

197

: Ivan the Terrible [ ], Peter the Great [ ], Nicholas the Second [ ] America the Beautiful [ ]. .

Proud to be American [, ] : . Proud to be American : --- , .

, , . , ( ) ( ), , .

: Proud to be American . proud to be English , proud to be British [, , , ]: . (.: . II , . 1, 5). : , . , , " , , ( ) 2 .

, , ( , , . .), , : , .

: Made in USA [ ] Crafted with pride in USA [ ]. , , Target , .

2. . , , , . : . , : ,

2 . . , // , 1998, 37 (250).

198

Past Simple Past Indefinite , Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuos : .

( , . .) : , , , . : , . ., ( ). -.

? , , .

: , , ( , ) , , , , . , : , , . ( ), ( ! ! , ! ), . ( , , , no spitting everywhere [. ], : - ?! , .)

, , , . , , -, , , , . : America the beautiful [-], Proud to be American [, ], American dream [ ]. . , , : They must cast off their European skin , never to resume it . They must look toward their posterity rather than backwards to their ancestors [ , -

199

. , , , ] 3 .

, , . - , , , : We are tied to our country in a unique way we are not the French or the '

Italians or anyone else held together by geography, ancestry and common culture; we are tied to the abstracts of freedom and opportunity and the themes expressed in the constitution and the Bill of Rights and if we cease to believe these things, what's the point of being an American? The ties that bind us are more invisible here we have no common culture to fall back on, no united version of history, no monolithic tale shared by all. Our foods, our Gods, our marriage customs everything is various, different... The future, in fact, has been the one constant in the history of America. The essence of America is a commitment to an unbounded future of achievable dreams... Yet the real and greatest enemy we face, as the millennium draws near, is the rejection of hope, optimism, and faith in the American ideas that bind us, that are our very essence 4 .

, - , , , . , , , . , ? , , : , , , , . , , , ... , -, , . , ... , , , , , , .

3. , , , . , , . ( !) 5 , , : ; ; ; , ; !; ; . .

, 1991 , , (, USIA United States Information Agency [ ] ) Security is everybody ' s business [ ]; Quality is everybody ' s job [ ] : : (. Security is everybody ' s business ).

, , -

3 Speech by Richard Dreyfuss to the 1996 American Federation of Teachers Convention. Cincinnati, Ohio, August 4, 1996. Los Angeles, [1996], p. 2.

4 Ibid .

5 .: . . . // IX . , . . 2. , 1999.

200

. . , . , : ( The Animal Farm ) : All animals are equal but some are more equal than others [ , (. . )].

- . :

1. , : , , , , , , , , , .

(, ) , , , . , , , , .

, ( , , ) , .

, , , , , .

, , , , , , , (, . .), 6 . ( ) , -

6 . . . . . . ., 1980.

201

. , , . . ( ). , .

2. , , , , , , . : , , , , . , - : , . : ( ), ( , ) . .

.

, , , . , . , , . , , , , , RC - , ( ), , . ! Sprite ( ? ?, , : ?), (?!) Rondo . .

( ) , 24 , : , , , .

, 1999 , :

, . ( .) : , ?

202

, , . ( .) : ? , ? -? ?

, . (.)

, , . (.)

, , ? - .

. .

Equus (. '') ( Peter Shaffer ) , , , , . , . :

dysart . And you're seventeen. Is that right? Seventeen?.. Wed? alan (singing low):

Double your pleasure, Double your fun With Doublemint, Doublemint Doublemint gum.

dysart (unperturbed). Now let's see. You work in an electrical shop during the week. You live with your parents, and your father is a printer. What sort of things does he print?

alan .

Double your pleasure, Double your fun With Doublemint, Doublemint Doublemint gum.

dysart . I mean does he do leaflets and calendars? Things like that?

(The boy approaches him, hostile.)

alan (singing).

Try the taste of Martini

The most beautiful drink in the world.

It's the right one The bright one That's Martini!

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.

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,

.

203

dysart . I wish you'd down, if you're going to sing. Don't you think you'd be

more comfortable?

(Pause.)

alan (singing). There's only one T in Typhoo!

In packets and in teabags too.

Any way you make it, you'll find it's true:

There's only one T in Typhoo!

dysart (appreciatively). Now that's a good song. I like it better than the

other two. Can I hear that one again?

(Alan starts away from him, and sits on the upstage bench.)

alan (singing). Double your pleasure

Double your fun

With Doublemint , Doublemint

Doublemint gum .

, :

1. .

2. , , . , , , ( security is everybody ' s business [ ]) . .

3. , , , .

( - ) , - , ( ) : ; ; ; ; ( ). , , : ! ! . . : ; ; . , , , , .

, , . , , : Let me finish my Letter with an American command Have a nice day !" [ : !" (.

204

!)] : The Yugoslav business is a great worry . In spite of any excesses of the Serbs, it is typical of the Americans to think they can bomb them into having a nice day". The poor young men and women [ . , , "]. : sit still for Americans is impossible , they are busy having a nice day [ , , ].

, . , , ( !) , , 7 .

, , : Enjoy ! [!] : !, !, .

, , . , ( , . .), , : question authority . , . , , 1997 , . , question authority . : It means , if you have questions , ask the authorities of the hotel [ , , , ]. , , .

. :

7 Have a nice day! typical American English greeting often seemingly used to encourage customers to return to an outlet [ !" (, !) - , , , , ] (. . Russell . Handouts of the lecture: Recent American Borrowings from American English in British English. 5 May 1993, Faculty of Foreign Languages, Moscow State University).

205

, , .

, , , , , , , understatement

, , , an unbreakable and indestructible unity , . , , ( . ).

, : We are proud and delighted to be of any service to you ! [ !]. proud and delighted ! - , .

, . , , ( ) . , : , , . : Every one who visited Moscow at Least once would subscribe to these words. He , , at least once [ ] , .

, , , : . , . , , . .

. ,

206

, , . : Italians do It better [ ] . , , , , .

, , , , . . .

II. .

, , : , .

, , , , , , .

, , . ? . . : , , . . ; ; .

, , , .

, , 1917 ", , .

, XX , . , , , , . . , . -

207

, , , , , , . . ( ), . , , , , . , .

, : , . . : , . ... , . . , , .

, , . XX : Individualism ... may be an ineradicable

part of the Anglo-Saxon nature... the racial tendency of the Russian (is) to do business on the communistic principle. Where like undertakings by Americans, or Englishmen, or even Germans, would first be interrupted by contention and then distracted by quarrels, and finally break down by the inability of the various members of the association to agree among themselves, the same number of Russians get along very well together, and practically without antagonism".

, - ... . , - , - , - , .

. : " , , . , , , 8 .

, ,

8 . . . . . ( ).

208

. , , () , , : , , . , . , . , , , . , 9 .

: , . . , . . , , 10 .

, , . , , . : : , . , , ... . . , . , -, . . : , " 11 .

, , , . , . , , , , , . ( , ) : , , , : Our commitment to diversity . We respect the individuality of all customers and employees a fact that guides the way we do business every day. We strive to create a comfortable, welcoming atmosphere for all of our customers, complete with a wide array of quality merchandise and excellent personal service. All of our employees and their individual viewpoints, beliefs, experiences and backgrounds are highly valued, and We are dedicated to making the most of each person's abilities.

. , . , , . , , , , .

9 , 1996, 17.

10 , 1991, 6, . 195.

11 , 1996, 17.

209

, , , ( Lee Blessing , A Walk in the woods ). , : . , :

botvinnik . (With a sudden formality.) I will now present to you my serious thoughts on the subject of ... Let's see... the character of the Russians and American people.

honeyman . I don't think that's...

botvinnik . That's my topic. It is

fundamental. Do you object?

honeyman . Not as long as you're

serious.

botvinnik . Deadly. (A beat. Honeyman nods.) Good. There is a great difference between Russians and Americans yes or no?

honeyman . Well... yes, if you...

botvinnik . There is no difference. I will prove it. If the Russians and not the English had come to America , what would they have done?

honeyman . They would have...

botvinnik . They would have killed all the Indians and taken all the land. See? No difference. Americans and Russians are just the same. But their history is different. What is history? History is geography over time. The geography of America is oceans therefore no nearby enemies. The geography of Russia is the opposite: flat, broad plains open invitations to anyone who wants to attack. Mongols, French, Germans, Poles, Turks, Swedes anyone. Do you agree with this? Of course you do it is obviously true.

honeyman . Andrey...

botvinnik . Quiet, I am being serious. So, what is the history of America ? Conquest without competition. What is the history of Russia ? Conquest because of competition. How best to be America ? Make individual freedom your god. This allows you to attack on many fronts all along

your borders, in fact and maintain the illusion that you are not attacking at all. You don't even have to call your wars wars. You call them settling the west".

honeyman . That's a gross misreading of ...

botvinnik . Don't interrupt. How best to be Russia then? Fight collectively. Know that you are trying to crush those around you. Make control your god, and channel the many wills of the people into one will. Only this will be effective. Only this will defeat your neighbors ( . . .).

( ). ... ara ... .

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. , . , ? . ? - . ? . , , , . . .

. ...

. . ? . , , . . . .

210

, , , , : What Happened to It ? [ ?].

, , , , , .

: The American dream was a sanctuary on the earth for individual man [ ]. : An individual man ... could be free not only of the old established close corporation hierarchies of arbitrary power which had oppressed him as a mass , but free of that mass into which the hierarchies of church and state had compressed and help him individually impotent [e ... , . , , ]. , : : We were all victims of that power called Freedom of Press , of that fault ( in the sense that the geologist used the term ) in our American culture ... which is saying to us daily : Beware "[ M , , , ( , ) ... : !"] 12 .

, , , , , .

. . , - , : Ideas do not drift through the social world like clouds in a summer sky , occasionally divulging their contents with a clap of thunder and a flash of light . Rather , ideas

, , , . , ,

12 On Privacy

(The American Dream:

what Happened

to It?) // W. Faulkner.

Op. cit., p. 67.

211

circulate in the social world as utterances, as expressions, as words which are spoken or inscribed. Hence to study ideology is, in some part and in some way, to study language in the social world ( . . .) 13 .

, , , . , .

, , , , , , , , (. : words , expressions , utterances ), , , , , . .

. . 15 , "", "", "".

:

Two heads are better than one [ , ]; Live and let live [ ]; Every family has a black sheep [ ]; There ' s safety in numbers [ ]; One good turn deserves another [ ];

People who live in glass houses should not throw stones [ , , ]; A friend in need is a friend indeed [ , , ];

to be all in the same boat [ ].

:

, () ;

;

;

;

;

, ;

;

();

( ) ;

, ;

;

, ;

, ;

, ;

, .

, "" .

13 J. . Thompson. Studies in the Theory of Ideology. Polity Press, 1984, p. 2.

212

:

Every man for himself [ ];

Charity begins at home [ ].

:

Divide and rule [ ];

Dog eats dog [ ];

Rats desert a sinking ship [ ];

Every cook praises his own broth [ ].

, , , 14 .

, , . , , , , , ( ars obligatoria , , ), .

. , , , , -, . , ( , ) , ( ) , , , . , , , , , . , , , .

, , , -

14 . . . . . . , . ., 1998, . 124-126.

213

.

, : I . , , I ? ! , , , , . , , . , , , , . , , .

. , , , , . , - . , , : .

, (, , ) , 15 . , 16 . .

, , (, , ).

, , :

I feel like smoking;

, I think ;

I am hungry ;

It's getting cold;

I am cold;

I don't feel like sleeping;

? are you wounded?

(߻ ) , . , , , , , , .

.

15 . : ?, IX 1999 .

16 3. . // IX . , . . 2. , 1999, . 179.

214


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