- .

II.

3. ,

, , - , ( Political correctness PC ).

20 , deracialization (. ).

, , , , . , , , . , , . . , , , .

, , , , , , , , , , .

, . , , , , , . , . - , ( , ) , , .

( linguistic tact ) 17 , , : , , .

17 .: S. Ter-Minasova. Language, Linguistics and Life (A View from Russia). Moscow, 1996, p. 120-122.

215

, , / , , , , . .

, , , black []. , . , :

Negro > coloured > black > African American / Afro - American [ > > > /];

Red Indians > Native Americans [ >

].

, . , Ms o Mr [] , ( Mrs []) ( Miss []). .

, , - man ( chairman [], businessman [], salesman []) - ess ( stuardess []), , . , :

chairman [ ] > chairperson ; spokesman [ ] > spokesperson ;

cameraman [ ] > camera operator,

foreman [ ] > supervisor;

fireman [ ] > fire fighter;

postman [ ] > mail carrier;

businessman [] > executive [ ]

business woman;

stuardess [ ] > flight attendant;

headmistress [ ] > headteacher .

women [] womyn wimmin , .

( his [], him []) , , his/her [/], their []: everyone must do his duty > everyone must do his or her ( his / her ) duty >

216

everyone must do their duty [ (. ) > / / (. , /) > (. ) ]. s / he [/] he/she [/].

, , , one person [ ] their guilty knowledge [ ]:

had no intention of telling anyone in Nightingale House where the tin had been found. But one person would know where it had been hidden and with luck might inadvertently reveal their quilty knowledge 18 .

, . , , .

: Everyone who should be in Nightingale House was in her room [, , ].

everyone [; , , ] her room [ ] , .

, , :

invalid > handicapped > disabled > differently - abled > physically challenged [ > / > > > , - ]; retarded children > children with learning difficulties [ > , ]; old age pensioners > senior citizens [ > ];

poor > disadvantaged > economically disadvantaged [ > () > ]; unemployed > unwaged [ > ]; slums > substandard housing [ > , ];

bin man > refuse collectors [, > , ];

natives > indigenious population [ > ];

foreigners > aliens , newcomers [ > ; , ];

foreign languages > modern languages [ > ];

short people > vertically challenged people [ >, - ];

18 P. D. James. Shroud for a Nightingale. London, 1989, p. 192.

217

fat people > horizontally challenged people [ > , - ]; third world countries > emerging nations [ > ];

collateral damage > civilians killed accidentally by military action [ > , ];

killing the enemy > servicing the target [ > ].

, pets [ ], , animal companions [-], house plants > botanical companions [ > -], mineral companions [-].

, . lookism ( look ', ') favouring the attractive over less attractive [ ]. (-, ! lookist .)

, (, history [] herstory ), , , . , , .

, , , Politically Correct Bedtime Stories , -, , , , 19 .

, ( ):

If, through omission or commission, I have inadvertently displayed any sexist racist, cultura list nationalist, regionalist, ageist, lookist,

ableist sizeist, speciesist, intellectualist, socioeconomicist, ethnocentrist,phallocentrist heteropatriarchialist, or other type of bias, as yet unnamed, I apologize and encourage your suggestions for rectification.

- , , , , , , -, , , , , , , , , , .

, , .

19 J. F. Gardner. Politically Correct Bedtime Stories. New York, Toronto, Oxford, Singapore, Sydney, 1994.

218

The Three Little Pigs

Once there were three little pigs who lived together in mutual respect and in harmony with their environment. Using materials which were indigenous to the area, they each built a beautiful house... One day, along came a big, bad wolf with expansionist ideas. He saw the pigs and grew very hungry in both a physical and ideological sense. When the pigs saw the wolf, they run into the house of straw. The wolf ran up to the house and banged on the door, shouting, Little pigs, little pigs, let me in!

The pigs shouted back, Your gunboat tactics hold no fear for pigs defending their homes and culture.

But the wolf wasn't to be denied what he thought was his manifest destiny. So he huffed and puffed and blew down the house of straw. The frightened pigs ran to the house of sticks, with the wolf in hot pursuit. Where the house of straw had stood, other wolves bought up the land and started a banana plantation.

At the house of sticks, the wolf again banged on the door and shouted, Little pigs, little pigs, let me in!

The pigs shouted back, Go to hell, you carnivorous, imperialistic oppressor!

At this, the wolf chuckled condescendingly. He thought to himself: They are so childlike in their ways. It will be a shame to see them go, but progress cannot be stopped.

So the wolf huffed and puffed and blew down the house of sticks. The pigs ran to the house of bricks, with the wolf close at their heels. Where the house of sticks stood, other wolves built a time-share condo resort complex for vacationing wolves, with each unit a fiberglass reconstruction of the house of sticks, as well as native curio shops, snorkeling, and dolphin shows.

- , . , ... , . , . , . , : , , !

: , ! , . -, - . , , . , , . : , , !

: , -!

. : ! , , .

-, - . , . , , - -, , , , .

: , , !.

. - . -, - , , .

, , . . , . -, , . , .

, : -. .

219

At the house of bricks, the wolf again banged on the door and shouted, Little pigs, little pigs, let me in!

This time in response, the pigs sang songs of solidarity and wrote letters of protest to the United Nations.

By now the wolf was getting angry at the pigs' refusal to see the situation from the carnivore's point of view. So he huffed and puffed, and huffed and puffed, then grabbed his chest and fell over dead from a massive heart attack brought on from eating too many fatty foods.

The three little pigs rejoiced that justice had triumphed and did a little dance around the corpse of the wolf. Their next step was to liberate their homeland. They gathered together a band of other pigs who had been forced off their lands. This new brigade of porcinistas attacked the resort complex with machine guns and rocket launchers and slaughtered the cruel wolf-oppressors, sending a clear signal to the rest of the hemisphere not to meddle in their internal affairs. Then the pigs set up a model socialist democracy with free education, universal health care, and affordable housing for everyone.

Please note: The wolf in this story was a metaphorical construct. No actual wolves were harmed in the writing of the story.

Snow White

Once there was a young princess who was not at all unpleasant to look at

and had a temperament that many found to be more pleasant than most other people's. Her nickname was Snow White, indicating of the discriminatory notions of associating pleasant or attractive qualities with light, and unpleasant or unattractive qualities with darkness. Thus, at an early age Snow While was an unwitting if fortunate target for this type of colorist thinking.

- , , , , . , , . , , .

Cinderella

There once lived a young wommon named Cinderella, whose natural birth-mother had died when Cinderella was but a child. A few years after, her father married a widow with two older daughters. Cinderella's mother-of-step treated her very cruelly, and her sisters-of-step made her work very hard, as if she were their own personal unpaid laborer.

One day an invitation arrived at their house. The prince was celebrating his exploitation of the dispossessed and marginalized peasantry by throwing a fancy dress ball. Cinderella's sisters-of-step were

very excited to be invited to the palace. They began to plan the expensive clothes they would use to alter and enslave their natural body images to emulate an unrealistic standard of feminine beauty. (It was especially unrealistic in their case, as they were differently visaged enough to stop a dock.) Her mother-of-step also planned to go to the ball, so Cinderella was working harder than a dog (an appropriate if unfortunately speciesest metaphor).

- , , . . , , .

. -. . , . ( , , .) , ( , , , ).

220

Jack and the Beanstalk

Once upon a time, on a little farm, there lived a boy named Jack. He lived on farm with his mother, and they were very excluded from the normal circles of economic activity. This cruel reality kept them in straits of direness, until one day Jack's mother told him to take the family cow into town and sell it for as much as he could.

Never mind the thousands of gallons of milk they had stolen from her! Never mind the hours of pleasure their animal companion had provided! And forget about the manure they had appropriated for their garden! She was now just another piece of property to them. Jack, who didn't realize that nonhuman animal have as many rights as human animals perhaps even more did as his mother asked.

On his way to town, Jack met an old magic vegetarian, who warned Jack of the dangers of eating beef and dairy products.

- . , . , - .

, ! , ! , ! . , , , -, , , , . -, , , .

. .

Snow White ( , ), white - , , , , .

very poor [ ] very excluded from the normal circles of economic activity [ ]. very poor very economically disadvantaged [ ].

( the smallest ) : this goat was the least chronologically accomplished of the siblings and thus had achieved the least superiority in size [ ].

221

differently visaged [ ], understatement : not at all unpleasant to look at [ ]. , , . a basket of fresh fruit and mineral water [ ] , : Red Riding Hood entered the cottage and said : Grandma , I have brought you some fat - free , sodium - free snacks [ : , , ].

, , . , , .

0. . , . . . ( ) The English We Use . 0. . . What is the English We Use ? 20 , . . 21 .

: 1) The English We Speak About , , ( recognition skills ) ; 2) The English We Use , ( production skills ) . ( , . . ) . , , , , , ; , , ( ) , . , , , , -

20 0. Akhmanovo, R. F. Idzelis. What is the English We Use? Moscow , 1978. 21 . . . . . . ., 1989.

222

( ), .

The English We Use , , , , , , , . ., , . 70-80- , . , , , ( , , , , , , , ), , . , , , , .

, the problem has not received all the attention it deserves [ ], , , , , . , , . , , , , .

, , , , , , , , . . . . , .

, , , , , , , ! . ( ) - . , , .

, , , golden

223

passport , . 55 , : . ( , ), .

. . , , . : ( ) .

, : good bad [ ], present absent [ ]. International House good bad , , to think about [ ], . , , , , , , , . , to think about .

: , , present , , absent '' apologies , ' '. , .

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-. . , 1) first class [ ] , ; 2) business ( dub ) class [- ()] , , , , ; 3) , , , . . . - economy class [ ] (-

224

, ), standard class [ ]. Standard , , , . , , : First cabin customers [ ].

, , , , , : BIB Big Is Beautiful [ ]; Renoir Collection [ ]. : , , . .

. cheap []. , , . standard []. , , cheap , expensive []. , , , , . peak [].

: small [], medium [], large [] family [] Jumbo [] .

: for small teeth , for standard teeth , , , for regular teeth , , , regular .

big , large , . - . King size .

, : real , genuine , natural leather , . - : , , . artificial , synthetic . : man - made ' '.

: . : . . : Best before [ ] .

best , , , better [], , good [] .

, , :

1) ;

2) , ( privacy ) , , ;

3) .

, , . , , , , , .

: How are you ? [ ?] , , , , , , , , , , , : Fine , thank you [, ], . How are you ? , , .

- , . : , . . . : . , . , ?" . . . , ", , , , . How are you ?" : ". ". , , , , 22 .

22 . . . . . ( ).

, , of course []. - , . . of course : , , , . of course : , , , .

. : Tea or coffee ? [ ?] Tea [], please : Tea , please [, ]. Black or white ? [ ?] Black , please [, ]. thank you [], . , : Sugar ? [?] : No , thank you [, ]. -: , . : Thank you , but I don ' t eat sugar . They say , it is harmful [, . , ], , .

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