- .

I.

1. , , .

Cultures are chiefly transmitted through spoken

and written languages. Encapsulated within a language

is most of a community's history and a large part

of its cultural identity.

David Crystal .

. . .

1. .

,

, . , ; .

: , , , , , , , .

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38

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. , ( areca catechu ), ".

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1 . . // , 1998, 18.

39

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40

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SIETAR 1994 , . , , , . , .

:

Vigdis [ ( )]; IRA [ ( )]; nesten IRA [ ]; Charles & Di [ ];

Europas navle [ ]; Volvo []; sauna & vodka [ ]; Russere []; billig []; billigere [ ]; godt kj o kken

[ ]; flatt [, ]; Tivoli & Legoland [ ]; fri hastighet [ ]; svarte bankkonti [ ]; mafia []; nytt a rskonsert [ ]; nesten Russere [ ]; badestrand []

, . , .

Enjoy your meal ! [ !]

Unknown cuisine [ ],

I ' ve never been in the UK [ ];

salmon [];

olives [];

red wine [ ];

pork [];

beer & sausages [ ];

cheese [];

pizza [];

spaghetti [];

potato [];

beet & carrot [ ];

grape []; seafood [];

oranges []

Herrings []; W . . Yeats [. . ]; 5 o ' clock []; vikings []; mermaid []; Peter the Great [ ]; Santa Claus [ ]; Russian language [ ]; cigars []; Salvador Dali [ ]; revoluton []; chocolate []; drugs []; sausages []; Swatch []; carnival []; pan []; beer []; the Alps []; Balaton []; Dracula []; war []; red pepper [ ]; sirtaki []

42

, , .

, , , . -, (, , , ). .

(3 .)

fog [] (3 .)

Alps [] (2 .)

Shakespeare [ ] (2 .)

peaceful country [ ]

tea time [ ()]

war-like attitude in the past

(2 .)

[

monarchy [] (2 .)

]

dry sense of humor [

the world of music [ ]

]

skiing [ ]

special tea [ ]

ball [ ]

Robin Hood [ ]

opera [ ]

Oxbridge [

()]

rain []

gentlemen []

 

good manners [ ]

5 o ' clock [ ()]

(2 .)

unknown cuisine [

]

Rubens []

-

Charles de Coster [

]

very imperceptible [

, ]

beer []

 

 

(3 .)

(3 .)

punctuality [] (2 .)

 

Hitler [ ] (2 .)

Mercedes []

(2 .)

quality []

exactness []

racial superiority of Nordic people

[

]

45

romanticism [ ]

danish (cookies) [ ]

Prussian soldiers [

flat [, ]

]

many islands [ ]

Kinder, Kuche, Kirche [ , ,

Mermaid []

( ʻ)]

Andersen [ ]

war [ ]

The Berlin Wall [ ]

 

ø

IRA [ ] (3 .)

fighting country [

 

]

flat [, ]

(2 .)

green gnomes [ ]

Olympic games [

conflict []

] (2 .)

whisky []

love of freedom and independence

[

]

ruins of the ancient world

Yeats []

[ ]

 

ancient Greece [ ]

origin of our civilization

corrida [] (7 .)

[

(3 .)

]

(2 .)

smth we know since our childhood

[, ]

bulls [ ]

democracy [ ]

sun []

seafood []

temperament []

sirtaki []

fiesta []

 

siesta []

leisure []

(4 .)

olives [ ]

many sexual liberties

Salvador Dali [ ]

[ ] (2 .)

 

drugs []

school of painting

(7 .)

XV-XVIII centuries [

pizza [ ] (3 .)

XV - XVIII ]

Renaissance [] (3 .)

skates []

(2 .)

cheese []

Pope [ ] (2 .)

(2 .)

pasta []

 

canals []

empire []

(2 .)

Catholicism [ ]

fairy tales [ ]

cheese []

44

(3 .)

fiords [] (2 .)

rock []

skiing [ ]

snow []

cold []

fish and fishers [ ]

herring [ ]

oil []

gas []

 

 

(3 .)

 

many colonies in the past

 

poverty today [

]

Graale ' s []

 

cigars []

heat []

(4 .)

no association [

(2 .)

]

vodka [] (2 .)

 

many lakes [ ] (2 .)

silentness [ ]

Motherland [ ] (2 .)

the former part of Russian empire

Russians []

[

openness []

]

generosity [ ]

winter [ ]

a great country with many people

deer [ ]

which doesn't succeed in

salmon [ ]

finding a sensible and wise

 

leader [

,

fashion [ ] ( .)

(4 .)

le parfum [ ] (2 .)

]

revolution [] (2 .)

large and unpredictable [

love [] (2 .)

]

courtesy [,

no comments [ ]

]

Russian language [ ]

aristocracy []

liberty []

45

equality []

Electrolux []

brotherhood based on blood

Europe (rockgroup) [

[,

(-)]

]

peaceful []

art [ ]

the former Queen of the seas

cuisine []

[ ]

Volvo []

Chanel 5 [ 5]

Swedish family [ ]

see and die [ ]

hockey []

 

 

war []

Dracula [ ()]

 

 

almost Russia [ ]

ex - friends [ ]

( .)

almost Russians [ ]

banks [ ] (4 .)

looking for their own way

skiing health resorts

[

[ ]

]

black bank account [

Slavic brothers [-]

]

very closely connected, not much

accuracy []

different [ -

, -

]

 

potatoes []

grapes []

[] (2 .)

beets and carrots [

(2 .)

]

. - XVIII XIX . (, , ). , -, , , , . -, , , 2 .

(, ) . .

2 . . , 0. . , . . , . . . . , 1989, . 75.

46

, . () , . , , , , , - 3 .

-, - , , , . , . , , , , , .

, , : , , 4 . , , - .

, , , , , .

: , . , , , , ( ) . . , , , .

, , . ,

3 .: . . . . . . ., 1988, . 107.

4 , . 21.

47

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, . , , . , , . , , .

, . , . , , .

. . , , : , : , : blue . , .

, , , ( , : dark blue [, -], navy blue [-], sky - blue [, ], pale - blue [-]). : cook , , .

. , : foot leg , , - ( ), -, blue .

, , , . ( ) . , -, , , , , , , ( , -) ( )

48

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.

( ) , . , , , . , , . , ( , , , , ) .

, , , , ( ) , , , ( ), , -, .

.

, , . , , , . , , , . , , , , . , .

. , . . .

, , , , , .

, ( )

. . , . 30 , , , , , , .

, , .

, -, , . , , - . ( things meant ) , , .

, , . , , , , , . , ( balalaika , matryoshka , blini , vodka ; , , ), , ( Bolshevik , perestroyka , sputnik ; , , ; , , ).

, , , : 6-7%, . . . . 5 . .

, - .

, , , - . -, , : , , , , -

5 . . , . . . . ., 1990, . 51.

50

, , , fingers thumb toes eight fingers and two thumbs [ ], eight fingers , two thumbs , and ten toes [ , ( ) ( )]. , , ( fingers , thumbs , toes ?), , , ( ).

, .

, , , , , . , . , . , , . - , , -, .

. . , -, - 6 . , , - , , , , ( , , ) . ( ) 7 . , , , .

6 . . . . ., 1978, . 56.

7 -, .

51


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