: . (2)

.

.................................................................................5
........................................................................................10

I.



................................................................15
.......................................................................15
............................................................................................18
.....................................................................................27
............................................................................................43


(1642-1763).....................................50
XVII .........................50

................................................................................................53
...............................65


-
(1763-1775) ..................81
XVIII ................................................................81
...........96
. -
.....................................................................................................105
............................................................................115


(1775-1783)................................123
. ................123
.....................................................131
............................................................138
17761781 .....................................................150
. -
..............................163


.
1787 173
. ... 173
. . . . 176
182
191
197

II.


--
( XVIII .- 1860 .) ......................................................205
(17931807)...................................205
................................................................................208

.............................................................................................220
...................................................................................229


(1789-1815)...................235
.........................................................................................235
................................................258
-
1812 .
...................................................................................................................270



(1816-1841).............................................................................288
.......................................................................................288
1823 .........................................................294
- ...................................................301
...........................................................307
.
...........................................................................313



XIX .....................................................................................................................324
...................................................................324
...............................................................................................326
............................................ 341
(1846-1848) 345
...355
358


362
-
362
. 367
. . . 379
cko . -
. . 384

III.


(1861-1865) 393
1860 . 393
404
410
. . . 425
- 435
446
. 455


(1865-1877) . 460
. -
460
467
475.
489
.
495

IV.


. 510
510
516
. 536



550
550
. 567
581
596


- 607
(XVIII .) . .. 607
613
. 620

634
634
-
641
651

659
663
. . . . 676


. .1 (1607-1877)

. . . 2 (1877-1918)

. . .3 (1918-1945)

. . .4 (1945-1980)





:
. .
( )
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
II. .
. .
( )


1607-1877

. .
( )
. .
. .
. . ˨
. .

1983

1983

-
XVII . 1877 . -
,
, XVIII -
XIX ., .
.,
, , , .


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